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Software The Process



Building computer software is an iterative learning process



Software Process - framework for the tasks that are required to build high quality software.



.

Software Engineering encompasses the process the techniques , methods and tools.



Software Engineering

Use of sound engineering principles in order to obtain economically the software which is reliable and efficient.

The application of systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation and maintenance of the software.



SE Layers



A Quality Focus



Process

Methods

Tools



SE Phases

Definition Phase

Development Phase

Support Phase



Definition Phase - What?

What information to be processed?

What functions are needed?

What are the design constraints?

What interfaces to be established?

Three major tasks

Information Engineering

Project Planning

Requirement Analysis



Development Phase - How?

How data are structured?

How functions to be implemented?

How the design to be translated into codes?

Three major tasks

Software Designing

Code Generation

Software testing



Support Phase

Error correction

Adaptation to new environment

Four major changes

Correction

Adaptation

Enhancement

Prevention



Umbrella Activities

Formal technical reviews

Project Tracking

Quality Assurance

Configuration management

Documentation

Reusability Management

Measurement

Risk Management



Software Process

Framework activities

Task Sets

Tasks

Milestones

SQA points

Applicable to all software projects

Umbrella actvities independent of framework activities - overlay the process model



Software Process Model

Development strategy incorporated by software engineers encompassing the process, generic phases, methods and tools.

There are different models to choose from based on

nature of project and application

methods and tools to be used

controls and deliverables required





All Software Development -Problem Solving Loop

Problem Definition

Technical Development

Solution Integration

Status quo



Characteristics of problem solving loops

Applied at all level starting from macro to coding

cross talk occurs within the stages

All the stages coexist simultaneously at some level of detail

Stages are applied recursively to user needs



“Software development is a continuum from the user to the developer to the the technology”



IEEE Standard

Project management process

initiation, monitoring, control, quality management

Predevelopment process

concept exploration, system allocation

Development process

requirement analysis, design, coding, implementation

Postdevelopment process

installation, operation, support, maintenance, retirement

Umbrella activities

verification, validation, configuration management, documentation, training



Software Life-cycle Models

Waterfall/classic

Incremental

Spiral

Prototyping

Evolutionary

Object-Oriented



Waterfall Model

Requirement definition

Design

Implementation & unit testing

Integration & system testing

Operation and maintenance



Sequential and iterative

Each phase is completed with production of certain deliverables

Typically for large systems different sets of people are involved in each stage

Communication between phases is through deliverables

Waterfall Model - characteristics



Pros

Follows usual engineering life-cycle

Simple to understand

Deficiencies are handles by iterating current phases

Waterfall Model - pros & cons

Cons

Unfortunately new projects rarely are so simple

Not always possible to state all requirement at the beginning

Late availability of working version

Clients may find difficult to follow the documents



Prototyping Model

Outline

Requirement specification

Build Prototype

Customer Evaluates Prototype

Revise Requirement Specification

Not OK

OK



Working model and not a paper model

Iteration is the key to prototyping

Close interaction with clients

Effectively integrated with waterfall model

Especially used for modeling user interface

Prototyping - characteristics



Pros

Reduction of requirements uncertainty

Shorter and less expensive testing

Lower training cost

Easy to evaluate

Testing in live environment

Lead to better development of a full system

Prototyping - pros & cons

Cons

Greater investment of user time

Inadequate problema analysis

User reluctant to give up the prototype

User develops unrealistic expectations

Not suitable for large projects



System/ information engineeing

Incremental Model

Analysis

Design

Code

Test

Analysis

Design

Test

Code

Analysis

Design

Test

Code

Analysis

Design

Test

Code

Delivery of increment 1

Delivery of increment

Delivery of increment

Delivery of increment 4

Calendar time



Similar to prototyping

Focuses on delivery of operational product with each

Early increments are stripped down version of the final product



Incremental Model - characteristics



Pros

Good use of available resources

No need for maintenance

Flexible

Prototyping - pros & cons

Cons

Degenerate to build & fix model

Extra time spent on testing and documentation

Some problems are difficult to split up into increments

Expensive



Spiral Model

Customer communication

Risk Analysis

Construction & release

Planning

Customer evaluation

Engineering





Spiral circuits are



Concept development projects

New product development projects

Product enhancement projects

Product maintenance projects



Software team moves around the spiral in clockwise direction, beginning at the centre

They pass through the regions of task sets





Spiral Model - characteristics



Pros

Focuses on reuse

Early error elimination

Integrates development and maintenance

Suitable for large projects

Spiral - pros & cons

Cons

Not suitable for general use

Needs risk analysos expertise



Relative costs of the stages of software development







Conclusion

Product

Process



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