Thursday, May 31, 2012

Napoleon

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Napoleon was born to noble family on August 15, 176, in Ajaccio, Corsica, and went to a French military school. He rose quickly through the ranks because he was intelligent and also the military needed strong leaders. Some people say Napoleon brought hardship to France; however, in my opinion I feel he brought glory to France.

I think one of the reasons why people say Napoleon brought hardship to France is because when Napoleon’s army was losing a war, he often retreated leaving his troops behind. People feel that this showed cowardice; however, he also won many battles and wars by using powerful military tactics. For example, he would keep his stronger soldiers back and when everyone else was pooped, he would send in the fresh soldiers t and win the battle. An example of this was in the third coalition, France verses Great Britain in 180.

I probably would agree that he did not bring any glory to France when they were fighting in the Peninsular War. That war was between 1808-1814 against Spain, Portugal, and Great Britain. In that war the enemy used hit and run attacks. France was unprepared so they were defeated. In 181 Napoleon and 600,000 of his army invaded Russia, but the Russian troops retreated suffering huge losses. I think one of the ways Napoleon gained Glory was in 1805, when Napoleon defeated Austria, and Russia at Ulm and Austerlitz. Napoleon gained more land; which included the Kingdom of Italy, and Napoleon became King. Napoleon wrote the Napoleonic Law Code.; This was very important to France. The Napoleonic Law Code was a unified system, where everyone was equal under the law. It granted freedom of religions, and allowed people to work in any occupation they wanted. This code put the State above the Individual, the Laws protecting woman and kids was dropped. Also, everyone had to pay fair taxes. I think another positive for the Glory of France was when Napoleon came up with Lycees. Lycees were public type schools, they encourage extreme nationalism, all the schools taught the same method; however, it was mostly for rich kids because tuition was very expensive. Napoleon gained more glory then hardship for France because although he often retreated he was about to lose a battle, his plans were always to expand France’s borders, influence and power. Every battle he was involved was for France’s glory.

In conclusion, if I had Napoleon as the leader of my country, I would agree on that he was a good person and went about bringing Glory to my county. I don’t think Napoleon brought that much hardship to France, although he brought some, he brought more glory than hardship. Some people say Napoleon brought hardship to France; however, in my opinion I feel he brought glory to France.

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Wonderful

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Turn up the Heat

Abstract



Does color really matter? That is what were going to find out.. The purpose of our project is to see how the color on the outside of a structure affects the temperature on the inside. We had heard it said before that when you wear a black or darker colored shirt it would absorb more heat than if you wore a white shirt, so we wondered if the same would be true when you compare a black house, a white house, and an unpainted house. For our hypothesis we figured the black house would be the hottest and the white house would stay the coolest.

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Our procedure was pretty straight forward. First we bought the necessary materials to complete the experiment. These items included Popsicle sticks to build the houses with, glue, scissors, spray paint, and outdoor thermometers. When we had everything together we started making the houses with the Popsicle sticks. This had to be done carefully because the houses all had to be the same exact shape and couldnt have to many open gaps so the heat couldnt escape. After we had completed all three houses we painted them black and white. We left one unpainted. When we set up our experiment the weather wasnt to friendly outside so we had to improvise a little. We did four, thirty minute trials in the dark to represent night time. We also did four, thirty minute trials under a heat lamp.

If there was anything bad about our project I would have to say it was the weather. If it was a nice sunny day then everything would have gone smoothly. Unfortunately our data had to be gathered under a heat lamp and in the dark. In the dark all of the houses were around the same temperature. We conclude that this is because there was no light that could be reflected or absorbed. Under the heat lamp it was a different story. The black house was by far the warmest on most trials. It seemed that the unpainted house was in the middle or really close to the white house during these trials. Doing research we determined that that there is something called reflectivity that determines how much light will be absorbed. When light is absorbed it causes heat. The heat or temperature is how we measured our results. It turned out that our hypothesis was right. The darker colored house was warmest. In conclusion we decided that you dont see a black house that often. You also dont often see an unpainted house even though it stayed about as cool as the white house. This is probably because a painted house looks nicer.

Please note that this sample paper on Wonderful is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Wonderful, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Wonderful will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Students who use sites such as this to cheat in their assignments

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What a boon the Internet is! How it opens the world to students at all levels of education. Unfortunately, the Internet also offers an opportunity for students to cheat.And whilst such sites as these can offer potential benefits, nevertheless, ultimately the dangers outweigh the benefits.

One might argue that the educational benefits of such a site as this are great. Students and pupils can peruse at their leisure the work of others on similar topics and perhaps take note of different writing strategies. This would enable them to learn how to overcome certain problems they might have with their own writing, or the work of others might inspire them as to ways of approaching difficult subjects.

Such benefits are clear. Yet, as is too often the case, there are those who will undoubtedly abuse the system.

Such students see no ethical dilemma in stealing the work of others and submitting as their own. Often they do not even attempt to disguise the fact that they have done this by simply plagiarising at length. No, word for word they take the work of others and believe in their arrogance that they will get away with it.

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What are poor teachers to do? With so much material available, how are they supposed to be able to catch every single such attempt at deception? Invariably teachers have developed a keen eye for such things, but not all cases are discovered.

The abuse of their teacher and their fellow students is of little consequence to them. They see it as their right to make the attempt and if they get away with it, so much the better. Arent all teachers idiots anyway?

Such behaviour undercuts the very point of education, breeds contempt and penalises those who try to achieve their goalsthrough hard work.

A dilemma therefore exists. Should such sites as these be permitted because they offer some help to students? Or should they perhaps be replaced by writing guides which whilst assisting students, make cheating impossible. Clearly, whilst many students are honest, those who are not make sits such as these a danger, and my suggestion would be to reorganise the structure to assist student learning rather than promote cheating, even if unintentionally.

Please note that this sample paper on Students who use sites such as this to cheat in their assignments is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Students who use sites such as this to cheat in their assignments, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Students who use sites such as this to cheat in their assignments will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Friday, May 18, 2012

Using Organizational Databases

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Using Organizational Databases





Abstract


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In today’s global economy, information drives the decisions that business leaders make. The more information leaders have at their disposal, the better their decisions will be. The mediums that contain the information these decisions are based on, are stored in databases throughout the company. Upper level managers making decisions, as well as production workers checking inventory, can quickly access these databases. We will examine some of the databases within the shipping department at my company, and how that information is used to make decisions concerning its’ day to day operations





Using Organizational Databases


The shipping department at my company actually performs two functions within the organization. As our name implies, we ship basically the entire line of products that goes out the door. This includes everything from finished goods products, CRG’s (customer return goods), RTV’s (return to vendor), to items that personnel within the company send to their customers.


The second function of the shipping department, and just as crucial as shipping itself, is the finished goods inventory for the company. This information is all contained and controlled through our master business system, SAP. The different modules, or databases, within SAP are designed to keep track of our inventory by part number and serial number.


Our department also stores or inventories equipment that is built to stock. This equipment will be reissued to manufacturing at a later date in order to install the right software or hardware to meet specific customer requirements. The shuffling of this equipment requires that the database change this item from a +TL unit that requires modification, back to an in-process unit. Once the modifications requirements are met, these units will be returned to finished goods inventory where they will await an order to ship on.


Finished goods are stored in one of 880 pans that are located at the rear of shipping. This storage facility is serviced by an ASRS (automated put-away and retrieval system). A separate database called AIMS is used to track finished goods inventory in the ASRS by storage location, part number, and serial number.


This is one area with our department that we need to fix. Presently there is no SAP AIMS interface. SAP actually assigns the location that the part will be assigned to, but it cannot “tell” AIMS directly where to store the unit. The crane operator is currently manually doing that function. The operator scans a label attached to the unit assigned by SAP into the AIMS system, which tells the crane what location to pull the pan from. Once the pan is retrieved, the pan location (bar coded on the pan), the part number and the serial (provided by SAP on the put-away label) are all scanned and entered into the AIMS database. The crane then puts the pan away to the correct location.


The finished goods units are then tracked in two different databases, those being SAP and AIMS. Once there is a customer order generated in SAP, it creates a T/O (transfer order) label. This T/O label is then taken to the crane operator who will again scan the T/O label for the storage location, part number and serial number. AIMS software then tells the crane what pan to retrieve so the correct unit is found. Once the T/O label has been confirmed, the AIMS database will show that the unit has been picked and no longer resides in its’ inventory. The database does however track by part number and serial number the date the unit was pulled out of inventory and which delivery it was assigned to.


After the unit is packed, it then processes through another SAP controlled database. Clippership is our “bolt-on” shipping module. This module does interface with SAP. SAP feeds the customer address information into the Clippership database, where, with the box information, such as weight and cube and number of boxes in the order, it will create a waybill which will be attached to the carton for shipment.


The information out of the Clippership database is then feed back to the SAP database. It confirms that there were X amount of boxes that were shipped, and it provides SAP with the waybill number for each box shipped. At the same time, the shipping clerk, who entered the box information into Clippership, will PGI (post goods issued) the order. This is the confirmation in the shipping module that the customer order has been sent.


The shipping module or database then interfaces with the SAP accounting database, which tell them to bill the customer for the unit that was sent. The information kept in the accounting database is also used by shipping and manufacturing to track how we are doing as far as shipping to our sales forecast. This gives us a feel for how much product is going to have to ship on the last week of the month in order to make monthly, quarterly and annual sales projections. Next week is the end of the fiscal year, so it is going to be a very busy week.


There are a couple of things with our system I would like to see improves. The first of course the SAP-AIMS interface. Not only would it save a lot of manual work to receipt and issue orders, but it would also cut down on the chance of error when issuing. Having to run each order in two separate systems is very time consuming, time that could be better spent doing put-away, so it is in a storage location, so the system can release orders for the product. The cost for writing a program for this interface is approximately 100k, so consequently it gets bumped out of the budget every year.


The second thing I would like to see changed is making the figuring, inputting of box information, issuing of waybills, and post goods issuing a one step process. The are machines that will weigh, cube, and put waybills on the box automatically. If it can do that much, there isn’t any reason it could also interface with SAP and put the information in it, as well as to PGI the order.


Databases play a vital role in the everyday functions of the shipping department at my company. It is vital to the growth of the company to know how much inventory we have on hand, and how much product gets shipped out of the door in sales. The highest level of management constantly monitors inventory overhead and shipping sales. These are key metrics that affect the bottom line of any company. The databases containing that information are vital to the prosperity of the company.





References


No references used for this material.








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Thursday, May 17, 2012

Hamlet Journal Entries

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Hamlet Journal


Hamlet may think of harming his mother, but he wouldn’t actually physically hurt her


“But, howsoever thou pursuest this act,


Taint not thy mind, nor let thy soul contrive


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Against thy mother aught.” (1.5.8-1)


This quote is taken from the conversation between Hamlet and the Ghost and is said by the spirit. The ghost is telling Hamlet that he should not plot against his mother while pursuing to kill the King. He tells Hamlet that the Queen has done nothing wrong and she has merely fallen to Claudius’ “witchcraft of his wit” (1.5.48). I don’t believe there is much need for the ghost to tell Hamlet not to harm his mother. When the ghost told Hamlet that Claudius was responsible for his father’s death, he focused his revenge towards killing the King. It’s easy to recognize that Hamlet feels his mother shouldn’t have married Claudius so soon after his father’s death, but even if he was upset at his mother for marrying Claudius, would he actually go to the extent to physically harm her? I don’t believe Hamlet could harm his mother intentionally even though she may have married Claudius right after the death of her husband. It is possible that Hamlet may think about plotting against his mother, but when it came down to acting on his intentions, I don’t believe Hamlet could harm his mother. Therefore, although the ghost has told Hamlet not to plot against his mother, I believe there is no need for the King to tell Hamlet to stay away from Gertrude. Hamlet would have to be mad to harm his mother, and unless he’s nuts, he won’t harm his mother.


If Hamlet weren’t so much of an intellect…


How would Hamlet react to the ghost’s task if he weren’t as much of an intellect? At first, Hamlet’s thirst for revenge makes him sound like he is willing to kill the King at any cost. Before the ghost speaks to him, Horatio and Marcellus try to convince Hamlet not to follow the ghost, as it may be a tempting disguise of the devil. Hamlet states, “Why, what should be the fear? I do not set my life in a pin’s fee” (1.4.70-71). This shows that Hamlet believes his life is worth next to nothing. If he truly believed this, after hearing the ghost Hamlet would have taken action to kill Claudius, be he decides not to. He is an intellect and decides to question the ghost and whether or not it is an evil spirit. If Hamlet weren’t an intellect, would he have killed the King right away? I believe Hamlet would have taken immediate action to kill Claudius because his emotions would force him to seek revenge quickly. Claudius killed Hamlet’s Father, and I would assume there would be enough anger and desire for revenge in Hamlet to kill the King. However, because Hamlet is starting to think and question everything, he isn’t going to kill the King right away. I believe he will end up killing Claudius once he is certain the word of the ghost is true.


Hamlet shows up half-dressed at Ophelia’s door � Why Ophelia’s door? -


In Scene 1 of Act , Ophelia has rushed to Polonius, telling him of how Hamlet showed up at her door half dressed, in a bizarre manner. Hamlet has decided to make himself appear crazy, so when he kills the King it will seem like he did it out of sheer madness. Why did Hamlet decide to target Ophelia in his peculiar state when he could have shown anyone else he was crazy? If Hamlet loves Ophelia, he could have just told her of his plan to kill Claudius but instead, he decides to exclude her and leaves Ophelia to try and put things together on her own. This makes Ophelia go crazy, because she loves Hamlet. Hamlet may believe that if he acts crazy towards Ophelia who he loves, then Claudius and others will believe that Hamlet is actually crazy. If this is his logic, then why does Hamlet choose not to tell Ophelia about what is happening? Hamlet needs to give his head a shake! Doesn’t he realize that he his hurting Ophelia? Hamlet could have told Ophelia about his plan, however, he didn’t. Maybe this shows that Hamlet doesn’t truly love Ophelia, because in reality, if you loved someone could you act the way Hamlet is acting? Hamlet must love Ophelia, yet I find it very hard to accept any reasoning for Hamlet’s actions towards her.


Why is Hamlets relationship between Ophelia degrading?


Hamlet’s mind is so preoccupied by his task that his relationship with Ophelia is slowly weakening. He has used Ophelia to his advantage but only because his mind is focused on accomplishing his task.


In Act Three, Scene Two, Hamlet seems really lively before the play begins. He makes a lot of sexual comments towards Ophelia, who recognizes Hamlet’s giddy condition. This is one example where Hamlet is so involved with his plan that he doesn’t really act himself, even to Ophelia. Hamlet’s so excited to see the King’s reaction towards the play that he can’t refrain from poking fun at Ophelia. Hamlet can’t help his relationship from degrading because his mind is fixed on his task and hasn’t stopped to think about how much he is hurting Ophelia.


The King’s response to the Hamlet-modified play


Just as Hamlet thought, when Claudius sees the scene where the poison is poured into the King’s ear, he becomes very upset and leaves. He later prays for forgiveness, and the King is very moved by the play. On Hamlet’s part, I think it was very clever of him to use the actors to demonstrate Claudius’ actions before the King. Also, while the play was in performance, Hamlet kept talking to the Queen and Claudius about the play, and he kept throwing in lines like “O, but she’ll keep her word.” (..8). I think because Hamlet kept disturbing the King and Queen with these sort of lines, it was even more overwhelming for the King when he saw the poison being poured into the Kings ear while he was asleep. It was very wise of Hamlet to use the play to taunt the King, and it worked very well, which pleased Hamlet. Now that Hamlet is fully aware that the ghost’s word was true and that Claudius is completely responsible for murdering his father, will Hamlet kill the King right away? You would think there would be nothing to stop him now, but will he choose not to kill Claudius and delay again? At the end of Scene of Act Three, Hamlet speaks very strong words about killing the King. He has done this before, but will he actually kill the King this time? Based on what we have seen earlier in the play, it is possible that Hamlet will find a reason to delay killing Claudius. Perhaps because Hamlet is aware that Claudius the murderer of his father, he will actually kill the King. It will be interesting to find out whether or not he does kill the King right away, now that he has marked his man.


If the sword were to the King’s throat, Hamlet would find another dumb reason not to act


In Act Three, Scene , Claudius is praying for forgiveness after being disturbed by the play that Hamlet had the players perform. Hamlet sees him kneeling and draws his sword to kill the King but Hamlet stops, and his mind once again prevents him from murdering Claudius. No matter what the situation, Hamlet seems to be able to find some reason not to kill the King. This time, Hamlet decides that he would not be revenged if he were to kill Claudius while he was praying. Hamlet keeps finding reasons not to kill the King, and it seems like he’s getting better at it…practice makes perfect I guess. Hamlet is becoming very predictable and when he does kill the King, we will probably be shocked he didn’t find some other reason not to. How will Hamlet decide when to actually act? He has had opportunities yet he thinks too much and has missed many chances to kill Claudius.


Hamlet’s reoccurring thought of suicide


There are many instances in the play where Hamlet contemplates suicide. From the beginning of the play he wonders if there is any meaning to his life. There are many times when he states that his life is worth nothing, thus he believes that the result of killing the king will not matter at all. Hamlet keeps considering the value of his life so he can set his emotions off and sound like he will kill the King. Hamlet’s ‘should I take my own life or suffer through life’ thoughts only make himself upset and feel there is more reason to kill Claudius. Maybe Hamlet is somewhat suicidal, but he can use this as an escape from killing the King. He keeps questioning his life to stall his plot of killing Claudius. It’s ‘oh my life’s worth nothing I’ll kill him now’ and then it’s ‘should I suffer?’ Hamlet keeps using the value of his life as a reason to kill or not to kill the King, thus he postpones his murder of Claudius.


Hamlet has killed Polonius by mistake, but his reaction was not at all what I expected


When Hamlet is speaking to his mother, he begins “speaking daggers” towards her. He shows her how upset he is with her because she married Claudius so soon after the death of her husband. Hamlet’s temper frightens the Queen into calling for help. When she does cry for help, Polonius, who was hiding behind the arras in the Queen’s chamber, begins to call as well. Hamlet, unaware that there was someone else in the room, kills Polonius by stabbing him through the arras. Hamlet had thought it was the King, but when he lifted the arras and found Polonius instead, he didn’t react like I thought he would. I expected Hamlet to be in shock for killing the wrong man, and I thought he might be somewhat apologetic but instead, he was completely the opposite. Hamlet was somewhat sorry for killing Polonius, but he seemed to think very little of Polonius’ death. He left Polonius and continued speaking with his mother. I was very shocked with Hamlet’s reaction. Now that Hamlet has killed Polonius, he will have to act soon to kill the King. By killing Polonius, he has triggered his plot of killing the King. Hamlet won’t be able to keep procrastinating and will have to kill the King soon, especially if he is to be sent to England right away.


Why can’t Gertrude see the ghost when it appears in front of Hamlet and her in Act , Scene 4?


In Act , Scene 4, Hamlet has just killed Polonius by mistake and is speaking with his mother. In the groping scene, the ghost interrupts Hamlet and his mother. Hamlet talks to the ghost and we notice that Gertrude can’t see the ghost. The Queen thinks Hamlet has gone mad, and yet Hamlet swears he sees a ghost. Is there a reason why the Queen can’t see the ghost? At the beginning of the play, Hamlet saw and spoke with the ghost. Horatio, Bernardo and Francisco also saw the ghost, yet Gertrude somehow can’t. I think in this scene, Hamlet may just be imagining the ghost, because there should be no reason why Gertrude can’t see the ghost. Hamlet has just killed Polonius; therefore maybe his mind is playing tricks on him because he is overwhelmed having killed the wrong man. Also, the ghost only speaks to Hamlet about killing Claudius. When the ghost appears, Hamlet and Gertrude are a bit too close, and you would think the ghost would mention something to Hamlet about leaving Gertrude alone, yet he doesn’t. This shows that maybe Hamlet just imagined the ghost. Had the ghost have been real, Gertrude would have been able to see it, and the ghost would have commented on Hamlet and Gertrude’s groping scene. Hamlet must have just been imagining the ghost.


The incident with the pirates seems all too convenient


On route to England, pirates attacked the ship and Hamlet returned to Denmark. Guildenstern and Rosencrantz continued on to England and were executed. This seems too convenient and I believe Hamlet may have set up this pirate attack so he could return to England. After killing Polonius, when the King told Hamlet he would be going to England he didn’t show any objection. Going to England would mean he wouldn’t be able to kill the king, yet he didn’t protest to the King’s idea. If Hamlet didn’t plan the pirate attack, I believe he would have killed the King quickly before he left for England, because he couldn’t leave without having his revenge. Hamlet didn’t consider killing Claudius prior to leaving for England, so he must have planned the pirate attack, therefore knowing that he would be back to kill the King. Guildenstern and Rosencrantz conveniently continued on to England where they were killed. If the pirate attack was merely a fluke, why wouldn’t Rosencrantz and Guildenstern return to Denmark with Hamlet? It seems to be too convenient for Hamlet to return to Denmark and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to continue on to England where they would face execution. Hamlet had to have planned the pirate incident, because his attitude towards the King’s idea of sending him away was very nonchalant. It seemed to work out too perfectly and Hamlet must have planned the pirate attack.


Ophelia’s death


In Act Four, Scene 7, we learn about Ophelia’s death. The Queen says she drowned in the nearby brook. Her mental state was terrible at the time of her death, and she was chanting random songs as she was drowning. Some may believe it is sad that Ophelia has drowned, but I have reason to believe that her death was for the best. Her mental state was deteriorating and her relationship with Hamlet was weakening. She wasn’t aware that Hamlet was only pretending to be mad, when he really loved her. The way Hamlet acted towards Ophelia, had led her to go into a crazed mental state. Had Ophelia not have unintentionally slipped into the stream, she may have even committed suicide. Ophelia was very upset and there is a possibility that she may have taken her own life if she hadn’t drowned. I believe her death was for the best, because I think it was better that she died than have to suffer her mental condition. If Hamlet would have only spoke to her about his plan to kill Claudius, Ophelia wouldn’t have gone mad. Because Ophelia may have committed suicide and because she was in a terrible mental condition, I believe her death was in her favor.


Laertes’ hotheaded character


Laertes has been informed of Polonius’ death and is instantly seeking revenge. He suspects the King, but is later notified that Claudius is not responsible for his death and that it is Hamlet. Laertes seems to be controlled by his emotions very easily. He hears someone has killed his father, so he seeks immediate revenge. This is very different from Hamlet because although Hamlet shows his emotions and anger he never really acts. Had Claudius said something to lead Laertes to believe he was responsible for Polonius’ death, I strongly believe Laertes would have killed Claudius. Hamlet is procrastinating constantly, whereas Laertes has actually confronted the King demanding answers. Laertes is also a very easily manipulated character. He has now become the King’s weapon, because he has a great thirst for revenge. The King has manipulated Laertes and is encouraging him to kill Hamlet. Hamlet’s more of a thinker, which allows him to prevent his emotions from taking control. The plot is thickening quickly. Laertes and Claudius are trying to kill Hamlet; Hamlet is trying to kill the King while he has already taken Polonius’ life. Hamlet is going to have to kill the King soon because he hasn’t the time to delay.


Hamlet declines Horatio’s offer of a way out of the fencing match


In Scene of Act 5, the King and Laertes have set up a fencing match between Laertes and Hamlet. It is a scheme to kill Hamlet ‘accidentally,’ and Hamlet accepts the proposed battle. Horatio is worried that Hamlet will lose to Laertes, and tells Hamlet that he can tell the King he is not fit to fight. Hamlet declines Horatio’s offer. Instead of finding a way out for him, like Hamlet usually does, Horatio has proposed a way out and Hamlet has declined the offer. This is the first time that Hamlet has strongly declined a way out. This part of the play seems to show us that Hamlet’s character is changing. He says fate determines everything, and you cannot fight fate. He told Horatio that if he loses, it is because of fate. Hamlet’s attitude has clearly changed. This conversation between Hamlet and Horatio is significant because it may show that Hamlet is willing to kill now. He believes fate determines everything, so maybe he will kill Claudius. He knows he will eventually have to kill the King, and his change of attitude about fate determining everything shows that he might be ready to get his revenge.


Favorite character


After having read the play, I would have to say my favorite character is Horatio. He seems to be a really nice character. He was beside Hamlet throughout the play and never betrayed him in any way. He seemed to care a lot for Hamlet. You could tell that Horatio was an important friend to Hamlet because he always talked with Horatio about his plan to kill Claudius and it seemed Horatio was always there. In the final scene, when almost everyone was poisoned or killed and Hamlet was almost dead, Horatio was there for Hamlet and had even suggested killing himself with the remaining poison. Horatio was a good character and he was my favorite character in the play.





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Wednesday, May 16, 2012

i have no idea

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TESCO STORE


BRADING ROAD


RYDE


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ISLE OF WIGHT


RD July 00


Dear Sir or Madam


Re Kyle Bateman


This is to certify that brought a film in for developing containing photographs for his geography project.


Unfortunately this film has been misplaced at Kodak (Ref. No. 706). The store is endeavouring to trace these photographs but at the time of writing this letter has had little success.


If you require any further information regarding this please contacting the store on telephone number and speaking to the customer service desk.


Yours sincerely


1th October 00


Dear John,


I am writing to inform you that due to my financial circumstances I have had no option but to take a part time position.


Tesco stores has employed me as a customer service assistant. This should not affect my employment with the DWP as the hours I have been contracted are after 5pm.


I hope that this does not cause any concern.


Yours sincerely





01.07.00


Dear Sir or Madam





I am writing with reference to my case, which I submitted on line on the 17th March 00, 15 weeks ago. I did have a previous claim/ offer but due to a change of circumstances and being an honest person informed you immediately.


At the present date my case is still pending as I appreciate are many others, but not for the want to trying to resolve the outstanding issues on my case.


I chased my case for weeks after I submitted it, this was due to the fact that my computer was in melt down and I needed reassurance that you had received my case. I was informed that my case was being processed.


Eventually after considerable time and effort on my behalf endeavouring to be informed of a result, I was then given the information that there was a problem with my case the problem was supposedly there were two applications on going and that my partner had applied as well as myself!


I was then informed this case was being treated as withdrawn.


I received a letter to try and clear up this issue, which I immediately completed and returned, this I had presumed would clarify the matter, also added my office number (I work for Job Centre Plus) and informed you that if there where any further issues that I was available to clear these.


The same day 1th May, I sent this back I received a letter stating that I was not eligible for the child tax credit. As I have two children under the age of 1years and both in full time education I would say that I do!


Since this date I have had no other communications from yourselves, however I have telephoned on various occasions to try and find the state of play, only to be told that either my case was still withdrawn or the latest, 0/06/0 that my case has been sent to verification and that it was showing a failure code and that it is now suspended! And to top it off the young lady at the other end of the phone has no idea as what to do next! At least she was being honest.


So this is why I am now resorting to put pen to paper, I am totally lost, have no idea which way to turn, as a member of public I could go into Job Centre Plus and they can assist in some way but as a member of staff I am discriminated against, and still no further to clearing this mess!


I would be extremely grateful if you could sort out this unholy mess, as a member of Job Centre Plus customer care is supposed to of the ultimate importance, at the present time I feel as if I have been shunted from pillar to post and in between times totally ignored.


As I am sure you can appreciate this is an extremely frustration if not to say worrying situation, therefore I would appreciate a letter from yourselves by return of post with a satisfactory out come.


Yours sincerely














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Prescription Drugs

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Prescription Drugs


Prescription drugs are just as addictive as illegal drugs and are easier to acquire. The only difference is that if you have health insurance, you are only paying a co-payment for your medication and not the street price for it. The more you use a prescription drug the more of a tolerance your body builds up to it, thus leading to an increase in dosage and a possible addiction. There are many prescription drugs available today and some classes of drugs are more abused than others such as opioids, central nervous systems depressants, and stimulants. Let us look deeper into these prescription drug classes along with who is at higher risk than others and possible ways to treat and prevent addiction.


The most commonly abused classes of prescription drugs are opioids, central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and stimulants. Opioids are used in the medical field to treat pain, diarrhea, and coughing. Opioids originate from the opium poppy and some are considered narcotics. Opioids affect the body by attaching to receptors in the brain and blocking the transmission of pain messages to the brain (NIDA, 001, p 5). Morphine and codeine are the most popular opioid prescription drugs. Morphine, in small doses, acts as a sedative or pain reliever but in larger doses, acts as an anesthesia. Codeine is much milder than morphine and is used in cough-suppression syrups. The symptoms of withdrawal from opiods are restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes, and involuntary leg movements.


CNS depressants are used for treating sleeping disorders, tension, and anxiety. CNS depressants affect the body by slowing down brain activity through actions on the gamma-amino butyric acid [GABA] system and produce a calming effect (NIDA, 001, p. 5). Some examples of prescription CNS depressants are benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Benzodiazepines are a tranquilizer-type drug that is used to treat anxiety, panic attacks, and various phobias. Barbiturates, in small doses, can calm nervousness and in large doses, can cause drowsiness or sleep. Unlike opioids, withdrawal from CNS depressants can cause death from the physical exhaustion and collapse of the cardiovascular system (Carroll, 00, p. 70).


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Stimulants are used to treat ailments such as obesity, narcolepsy, and attention deficit disorders. When a stimulant is released into the body, it enhances brain activity, causing an increase in alertness, attention, and energy (NIDA, 001, p. 5). Some examples of prescription stimulants are methylphenidate and amphetamines. Methylphenidate, also known as Ritalin, is used to treat attention deficit-hyperactivity disorders. Amphetamines are used for treating narcolepsy and weight loss in the medical field. Abusing stimulants can lead to hostility and paranoia over time. If high doses are taken then it can lead to high body temperatures, an irregular heartbeat, and a potential risk of cardiovascular failure or lethal seizures.


The most high-risk people susceptible to prescription drug addiction are teens, the elderly, and women. Teens go through many changes that can lead to experimentation, self-esteem issues, and individualism. This journey can lead to addictions to stimulants and painkillers. Not all teens who become are addicted are “trying to find themselves”, some are athletes who are injured and become addicted to painkillers. In the teen years, acceptance is highly sought after among peers leading to a high risk of addiction from peer pressure.


Elderly people today are usually on numerous, “prescription medications approximately three times as frequently as the general population and have been found to have the poorest rates of compliance with directions for taking the medication” (NIDA, 001, p. 6). As you become older, more parts of your body start to shut down, thus one needs a prescription or two per body part, thus leading to numerous mixed medications. Some elderly people find it hard to read the small print labels on the prescription bottles and confuse the dosage of their many medications.


Studies show that, “women are more likely than men to be prescribed an abusable prescription drug, particularly narcotics and anti-anxiety drugs” (NIDA, 001, p.7). All through life, women are taught there is a pill to fix most problems. For example, if you have stomach cramps related to premenstrual syndrome, you are told to take Midol. If you do not want children right away, you are told to take an oral birth control pill. Women are known to visit their doctors for ailments sooner than men and usually leave with a new prescription. The frequency of popping pills daily can be habit forming, and if given a strong prescription, can lead to abuse.


Addictions can be treated by behavioral treatments, pharmacological treatments, and detoxification. Behavioral treatments are forms of counseling, contingency management, and cognitive behavioral therapies. Pharmacological treatments are using drugs to counteract the effects of the drug and using drugs to relieve withdrawal symptoms or to help curb cravings. Sometimes, combinations of both behavioral and pharmacological treatments are needed to help an addiction. Detoxification is an extreme method that is done before other treatments and can only be effective if followed by long-term behavioral or pharmacological treatments. It requires the patients to receive general anesthesia and sleep for hours while their body goes through the withdraw symptoms. Patients usually have no recollection of the detoxification process and when they wake up, they will be free from the physical dependence on the drug.


The healthcare providers, pharmacists, and the patients can help in preventing prescription drug-addiction. Healthcare providers can monitor how often patients are changing doctors to follow-up and see if they are changing doctors frequently to get more prescriptions. Doctors can assist by asking their patients screening questions during their yearly exams such as what medications they are taking, how frequently, and what for. Pharmacists can assist by educating the patient on how to take the medication correctly and to look out for forged prescriptions. The patients themselves can help prevent addiction by asking about drug interactions with their current medications, not increasing or decreasing medication amount without a doctor’s approval, and by not taking other people’s medications. Prescription drugs are addictive, but not everyone becomes addicted because they take the prescription correctly.


Prescription drugs can be addictive or a dependency for people; it is just a matter of knowing the difference. Addiction to drugs means you are dependent on a drug to fulfill your physical and emotional needs. While a dependency means your body developed a tolerance for the drug and needs the drug to function because if you stop taking it then you will have withdrawal symptoms (Geier, 00). Many people do not get over their addictions successfully and often die trying. They are unable to get to the root of their addiction because they are in denial. Most will fall down and pull themselves up. While others catch themselves before they completely fall and turn their life around. Everyone is different when it comes to addiction and abuse, but for those who do fall down the rabbit hole help is available, so reach out to someone soon.


REFERENCES


Carroll, C. (00). Chemical Dependency in the Workplace (Rev. Custom ed., University of Phoenix). USA McGraw Hill Primis Custom Publishing.


Geier, P. (00). The Dark Side of Prescription Drugs. Retrieved September


1, 00 from, http//www.prescription-drug-abuse.org/


National Institute of Drug Abuse. (001). Research Report Series Prescription


Drugs/Abuse and Addiction. Retrieved September 1, 00 from, http//www.nida.nih.gov/ResearchReports/Prescription/Prescription.html





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Tuesday, May 15, 2012

1984

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Before I begin, I would just like to make it clear that I never completed the reading of this book, for I am a lazy, procrastinating fourteen year old. It’s almost as if I’m lost in a world where I can’t escape to do what I really need to do.


Anyway, to complete the report, I have blended my current knowledge of the book from what I’ve already read and some of the summaries that I’ve read from the internet (google is a nice search engine to use when in situations as mentioned). I did not remember the exact layout for the book report, as I left my notebook in my locker. But whatever, it is time for me to begin.


Winston, a -year-old who has an ulcer in his foot, works as a low-ranking member of the ruling Party in London, Oceania. It matters not where Winston goes, for he is always watched by the Party through telescreens (invasive little buggers). It matters not where Winston looks either, for he is always shown the face of the Party’s leader “Big Brother.”


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As we begin, Winston feels frustrated by the control of the Party, which prohibits all free thought or any expression of individuality. So, in a slight revolt, he illegally purchases a diary to where he writes his thoughts (criminal thoughts, that is).


We learn that he works in the Minitrue (or the Ministry of Truth), where he alters historical records to fit the needs of the Party. Sometimes later, he notices a dark-haired woman staring at him and worries that she is a Thought Police-woman.





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I Remember It All: A Critique of Plato's Doctrine of Recollection

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I Remember It All


Platos doctrine of recollection states that rather than “learning” in the common sense, what is in reality occurring when people think, and eventually find an answer or solution to a problem, is that they are “recollecting” concepts they already knew. It is, in Plato’s view, recovery from amnesia developed through the process of recycling of “souls.” Plato’s Meno is logically inconsistent. If knowledge is “justified true belief,” as Plato defines it, then the acquisition of knowledge is the subjective formation and justification of belief rather than the objective recollection of absolute knowledge, as Plato proposed in the Doctrine of Recollection. It is important to note here that subjective belief systems can be justified by a “logos” and remain nonetheless subjective, which explains the radical divergence of organized religions. The logical consequence of Plato’s definition of knowledge is Postmodernism “Facts are merely interpretations,” as stated by Nietzsche, inasmuch as different perspectives, such as empiricism and rationalism, often give rise to incompatible, though equally true, beliefs.


Newton equated force with mass multiplied by acceleration and proceeded to define gravity as a force. As Newton’s theory of a gravitational force underwent the scientific process of induction and falsification, it was soon widely held to be a “justified true belief” (i.e., general knowledge) and knowledgeable scientists thereafter adhered to the idea of gravity as a force. It was not until Einstein proposed the Theories of Relativity that this “general knowledge” was disproved. Indeed, the popular misconception of gravity as a force still pervades Academia. Gravity is more accurately defined as the curvature of the geometry of space-time and certainly not a force. The purpose of this historical example is to elucidate the problems inherent to Plato’s definition of knowledge. Newton’s proposition was recognized, justifiably, as a true belief and was only later superseded by a more accurate belief. Did Newton’s soul not have the innate knowledge that Einstein’s did? If Newton did indeed have the knowledge, why was recollection different? Why was Newton’s gravitational theory “recollected” by the Scientific Community if it wasn’t completely correct? The underlying reality is that these two radically different perspectives gave rise to different truths. It should be noted that Newton’s ideas about physics were considerably useful and only incorrect with extremely precise measurements. The conclusion drawn by these statements results in a falsification of Plato’s Doctrine of Recollection in view of the fact that discovery of these truths were attained through the medium of abstract reasoning rather than a “recollection” of innate knowledge.




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Monday, May 14, 2012

Smoking

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Should Smoking be Restricted at Intermountain Data Systems?


After the 186 Surgeon General’s report, The Health Consequences of Involuntary Smoking, the nonsmokers became more vocal about their rights to clean air in the work place. Smokers and nonsmokers heatedly debate the issue; managers are forced to resolve the controversy.


The Problem


Intermountain employs both smokers and nonsmokers. Smokers are in all departments and at all levels of authority.


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The Demand for a Smoke-Free Work Place


An organized group of nonsmokers demanded their right to a smoke-free work place. The purpose of this report is to determine whether smoking should be restricted at Intermountain.


Authorization for Report


Mrs. Catherine R. Mosman, executive vice president of Intermountain, authorized this report. Gregory and Moench, Social issues Consultants, is solely responsible for the content of this report.


The Investigation


The Investigation will examine three areas of the problem


1. The personal rights of individual workers.


. The health problems linked to involuntary smoking.


. The cost of smoking to management.


Personal Rights


The issue of personal rights is at the core of the controversy. Neither side wants to abrogate its rights.


Nonsmokers’ Personal Rights


Nonsmokers at Intermountain say that smoking infringes on their right to breath in clean air. At present, smokers have the option of not smoking; but nonsmokers do not have that option. If a coworker smokes, the nonsmoker is forced to breath the same air.


Smokers’ Personal Rights


Smokers believe they have rights, too. They do not believe they should be forced to give up their rights in favor of other people’s rights. Surveys show, however, that about 75 percent of smokers want some restrictions. Some smokers see the restriction as one way to avoid conflict with nonsmokers.


How Other Companies View the Issue


Other companies have adopted various viewpoints. Two major points of view have surfaced.


Health is a Fundamental Right


Some companies believe health is a fundamental right and that smoking is unhealthy. These companies ban smoking.


A no-smoking rule can’t be enforced


Some companies will not restrict smoking because they feel that restrictions would be ignored and would be difficult to enforce. In addition, some research findings indicate that the ill affects of involuntary smoking cannot be proved.4 So, management’s position is not to restrict smoking as long as smoking does not affect workers’ job performance.


Health Factors


Health factors are an important issue in controversy. The nonsmokers and smokers believe they are unjustified on their positions on the issue.


Nonsmokers’ Position It Makes Me Sick


Many nonsmokers at Intermountain say that exposure to smoke-filled rooms aggravates allergies, bronchitis, and similar illnesses. Nonsmokers assert they should be allowed to breath air that does not make them ill. Nonsmokers point to the following table as support for their case.5 As the table shows, office workers spend about 1 percent out of each 4-hour day near smokers. Nonsmokers believe this much exposure is overexposure.


MEAN PERECNT OF TIME ALLOCATION IN VARIOUS LOCATIONS BY WORK CLASSIFICATION SUBGROUP


Outdoor Office/


Location Homemaker Worker Service


Home 84.4 4.7 68.74


Outside 5.5 1.81 .47


Motor vehicle 4.8 8.67 4.6


Other indoors 6.01 1.55 4.


Near smokers .84 .75 11.7


Smokers’ Position I Need It Smokers at Intermountain assert that their emotional well-being needs to be considered, too. They say smoking calms and relaxes them. Smoking can quickly restore their emotional balance and can be one way to channel nervousness. For some smokers, smoking has become such a part of their pattern of living and working that concentration would be difficult if they were forced to give up smoking.


Many smokers have developed a physical dependency on the nicotine. Smokers say that without the stimulant, they would feel tired, irritable and distracted. They say that with nicotine in their system, they have the stamina to work long hours and reach higher performance levels.


Research Findings


Research findings support both sides of the conflict. However, most research findings support the views of nonsmokers.


Involuntary smoking is not harmful


The summary of a passive smoking symposium in 184 states that “the connection between (secondhand smoke) and lung cancer has not been scientifically established”. 6


Involuntary smoking is harmful


In 186, the Surgeon General reported, “passive smoke can cause lung cancer in nonsmokers.”7 Several studies have shown that secondhand smoke is hazardous to older people and to those with respiratory illness. Smoke can also cause allergic reactions and increase the risk of respiratory disease.8


The University of California at San Diego conducted a study that showed secondhand smoke constricts the breathing passage of nonsmokers.


Scientists at the Environmental Protection Agency estimated that 5,000 of the 10,000 lung-cancer fatalities are from nonsmokers’ exposure to smoke. More than ten other studies link passive smoking with lung cancer.10


The 186 report of the Surgeon General details effects of smoking on smokers and involuntary smokers.11


Inhalation of tobacco smoke during active cigarette smoking remains the largest single preventable cause of death and disability for the U. S. population. The health consequences of cigarette smoking and of the use of other tobacco products have been extensively documented in the 17 previous reports in the health consequences of smoking series issued by the U.S. Public Health Service. Cigarette smoking is a major cause f cancer; it is not only strongly associated with cancers of lung and respiration tract, but also causes cancers at other sites, including the pancreas and urinary bladder. It is the single greatest cause of chronic obstructive lung diseases. It causes cardiovascular diseases, including coronary heart disease, aortic aneurysm, and atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease.


Reading involuntary smoking, the report stated


Involuntary smoking is the cause of disease, including lung cancer, in healthy nonsmokers.


The simple separation of smokers and nonsmokers within the same airspace may reduce, but does not eliminate, the exposure of nonsmokers to environmental tobacco smoke.1


COST FACTORS


Management incurs costs when employees smoke. Independent studies have examined those costs. Costs associated with personnel.


After studying absenteeism, property damage, productivity, and employee morale, Seattle University researchers report that the cost of smoking is approximately $4,600 per year per smoker. By hiring only nonsmokers, a company could save 0 to 50 percent of its costs for personnel, insurance, and maintenance, as well as cut disability payments by 75 percent.


This study is disputed by University of California at Los Angeles researcher Lewis Solmon, sho states that the research is “highly questionable” and “based on faulty logic.” He says that far from cutting costs, a nonsmokers-only hiring policy creates labor/management relations and morale problems. Losses in productivity and profit would result. Costs Associated with Equipment.


Tobacco smoke damages products such as computer chips and pharmaceuticals that are made in “clean rooms.” An hour after smoking a cigarette, the smoker emits from breathing) significantly more particulate matter than a nonsmoker. Such emissions can damage many “clean-room” products.


Smoking is banned in many rooms with sensitive electronic equipment. Today, computers are in offices, warehouses, and factories. Hard disk as well as floppy disk drives are easily damaged by smoke. Smoke leaves a coating on computer chips, causing them to run up to 0 percent hotter than normal. Costs Associaated with Remodeling.


Smoking restrictions may cost companies thousands of dollars to create separate ventilated rooms for smoking or ononsmoking workers. Businesses may have to do this to accommodate valuable employees, both smokers and nonsmokers, so that these employees’ services are not lost. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates it costs $0,000 per worker to rid the work place of tobacco tar and nicotine. Costs Associated with Lost Productivity.


One company says that smoling restrictions would cause a loss in productivity because of frequent absences from the work station for cigarette breaks. However, another estimate is that 7 percent of a smoker’s working time is wasted because of poor health and inefficiency. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENCATIONS.


On the basis of the preceding findings, Gregory and Moench make the following conclusion; 1. Health risks to nonsmoking employees exist from exposure to secondhand smoke. . “Smoking costs companies money through higher insurance premiums, absenteeism, and other factors. This is probably as true for Intermountain ass for other companies studied.


Gregory and Moench recommends that smoking restrictions be implemented at Intermountain. If management agrees with this recommendation, an implementation plan will be provided by Gregory and Moench.














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Letter From Birmingham Jail

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Dr Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote a letter to the clergy of Alabama to address their criticism of his work concerning what would become know as the Civil Rights movement. In this letter, he addresses their perception of him as an outsider, and his cause, to be untimely.


Dr. King tells the clergy that he is in Alabama because of the injustices committed not only towards black people, but that any injustice towards one group is a threat to justice for any group (Birmingham 16). He takes a stand and challenges the clergy to take seriously, the need for everyone to band together and fight for a common cause. Dr. King challenges the clergy to use its power to alert the society to its wrongdoings and to help create change. Through the concept of systems theory, Dr. King argues that we as human beings are all tied together and that whatever happens to one affects everyone else (Lecture 10/14/0).


This letter is very relevant to this course because its focus is on human behavior in a social environment that at the time was highly divided between those that were treated fairly and with opportunity and those who had little if no access to basic fundamental human rights.


Dr. King advocated for human rights and challenged others to join him. He took unpopular positions and wanted to create change. His form of change challenged the social fabric of the times and was seen as far to bold for the average person to comprehend. Our social environment is created by the ability of some to look out for those less fortunate and to use their talents, power and prestige to help others share in prosperity. Dr. King’s vision of a healthy social environment arose from the unjust laws of segregation and oppression. He chose to act in a nonviolent manner to draw attention to the issues of his cause and not blur them by having the focus shift to violence of his group. Dr. King was very aligned with the values and ethics of social work. Both believe in the equal treatment for all, an opportunity for a decent life, access to resources that create and enhance the well being of others, and the use of advocacy for those that cannot advocate for themselves.


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Dr. Kings Letter From Birmingham Jail addressed his concerns about the quality of life for black people. He focused on the underlying causes that created a society in which those in power gave him and his followers no choice but to protest the injustices created by such a structure. On the surface, there was a lack of basic human rights for black people. The level of inequality in education, health care, jobs, and housing evidenced this as well as other segregation practices that were accepted as the norm in the society at that time. Although people began to acknowledge that these issues were problems, few people wanted to really change anything.


Dr. King knew that in order to create a just environment, he had to address the institutions of power and the laws that permitted such injustices to take place.


The contemporary environmental issues that social workers address today still reflect the issues and concerns of Dr. King. Social work is still focuses on the inequality of resources for minorities and/or the underserved by championing the opportunity for self-development, empowerment, developing useful resources, and creating political change. They work to enhance opportunities to individuals and groups through education, strengthen families, and advocate building relationships between communities and create political change through law.


Dr. King addressed the issues of the black community and in doing so brought to light the plight of the many other groups. Social work has taken on these types of oppressions and injustices to include all disenfranchised groups. Our society has never been one to extend itself to the underprivileged. Dr. King knew that as long as the oppressed were good people and never asked for anything, the dominant society would keep “these people” as underprivileged and would not make any changes to help them. Social workers still see that today, as people continue to live in run down houses, do not have adequate education, have poor health care, and have menial jobs. Dr. King could see that as long as a group continues to participate in what society hands them without organizing for change, they will be subject to unequal treatment.


Dr. King wrote, “We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed” (Birmingham 16). The oppressed do not have the resources or knowledge to advocate for themselves for better life conditions. It takes individuals or groups with status, knowledge, power and resources to advocate on behalf of the underprivileged. For these reasons, the field of social work has been committed to taking up the causes of the underserved. Through their power, skills, knowledge, and ability to harness resources social workers help empower individuals and groups to help themselves.


There has been improvement since Dr. Kings time and what has changed is that for many, life has gotten better, but is certainly not on an equal playing field. There is always a new group of people that need the advocacy of “helpers”. Race, ethnicity, gender, sexism, social class and access to scarce resources are still issues that need to be addressed. Although the “isms” are not overt, they are covert, which at times makes them harder to address.


In order to make societal changes, new laws need to be adopted. Dr. King was a great advocate for revision of laws. He could see that throughout history of the Bible and throughout mans history in society that laws need to change in order for a group to survive. Dr. King wrote, The unjust law is a man-made code that squares with the moral law or the law of God.” He also wrote that one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws, and that an unjust law is no law that all (Birmingham 16). Social workers are visionaries too, because they also promote social change on behalf of their clients. Social Workers fight for social justice on behalf of vulnerable and oppressed individuals and groups of people which help fight against unjust laws that keep oppression in tacked (Code of Ethics 1; Ethical Principles).


Dr. King took the approach of nonviolence as a way for cause to be recognized. He studied Gandhi and believed that this was best form of action to take because people have a difficult time fighting nonviolence. Dr. Kings form of action was through negotiations and demonstrations. Social worker share the value of nonviolence and work to build relationships built on integrity, modeling to their clients how to empower themselves. The importance of human relations between and among people is an “important vehicle for change” (Code of Ethics 1; Ethical Principles). Social workers need to work with integrity, in order to make others believable in their method of “promoting their ethical practices on the part of the organizations with which they are affiliated” (Code of Ethics 1; Ethical Principles). The white power structure fought against Kings cause of social injustice and they still fight social workers against the cause of enhancing the well being of humans (Birmingham 16, and Code of Ethics 1; Ethical Principles, respectfully). In order to move forward, Dr. King and social workers demand to be noticed and respected from authorities by acting with integrity and with nonviolence behavior. They both know that in order to encourage changes in attitudes and behaviors, it may take a lifetime to move a group forward. By means of negotiations and demonstrations laws can be made to protect the rights of others and enforce better treatment until attitudes can change. Using social work values, ethics, knowledge, compassion, and organizational skills for the good of others, favors Dr. King, social workers and the people they serve.


When reading this wonderful Letter from Birmingham Jail I was so amazed and taken-in from the written words of Dr. King. I felt his eloquent wording and colorful presence of facts and history demanded respect and sent notice to the topic of social injustice toward a group of people. The letter stated many tangible situations and examples throughout the life-course of black people, the Bible, and in history to promote Dr. Kings passion toward others. “Social justice and social change with and on behalf of clients to enhance human well-being, and help meet the basic human needs of all people is the same mission of social workers (Code of Ethics 1, preamble). Throughout history, both with Dr. King and the mission of social workers, there is a strong core value in a code of ethics by which both have adhered to. Dr. King and social workers fight against social injustice, and promote the dignity and worth of a person or group. Each understands the importance of human relationships, and how to work with integrity and competence. By adhering to codes and standards, whether they are personally developed or organized by a group dedicated to the development of a “social work code of ethics,” Dr. King and social workers dedicate their lives to better society.





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Sunday, May 13, 2012

across the bridge

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Across the Bridge, and There is Modernism


WWAnalysis of the modernistic writing techniques in Across The Bridge





Across The Bridge, a short story written by Graham Greene deals with a cruel rich old man who exerts tremendous efforts to immigrate into America where his illusive intangible paradise is waving both hands to him at the other end of the bridge. As a model essay, it is widely hailed by contemporary critics mainly due to the modernistic writing techniques employed by Graham Greene.


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The limited first-person point of view is one of its most obvious features. On the one hand, Greene adopts the narrator “I” rather than the conventional omniscient narrator, on the other hand this first-person perspective differs greatly from the honest reliable ‘I” in earlier novels like The Great Gatsby. In this story, “I” have just been in this border area no more than two weeks and hardly know anything of Mr. Joseph Calloway. Moreover, Greene offers too little information of the narrator’s career, background, and family either by stating ambiguously or by avoiding these topics completely. Contrary to the traditional golden rule of hiding the author’s presence as much as possible, Greene gives “I”(the emblem of author himself) an unusual privilege to have a face-to-face discussion with readers about the plot and its comic elements. All the above techniques throw doubt on the reliability of the narrator.


Besides, the deliberate parodies of many epoch-making modernistic novels are also noteworthy. Firstly, the depiction of America in the image of a lighthouse is an ironical parody of To The Lighthouse. Secondly, the satirical comparison between the two corrupted border cities is a parody of the contrast between West Egg (city uncorrupted) and East Egg (city corrupted) in The Great Gatsby. Thirdly, Mr. Calloway’s dream of going to the paradise-like land in America is the corrupted American dream along with the wasteland motif. Finally, the futile torturing waiting scene is a distorted version of Waiting For Godot.


Lastly, we come to the impressive character of Mr. Calloway. For all his money and real estates, he is not pictured as a respectable elderly man but a cold-blooded “living dead”, he is not called a ‘millionaire” but just a creature “worth a million”, and his death did not arouse sympathy but disgust. In fact, the creation of negative or evil protagonists is strongly against the traditionally positive descriptions of heroes or heroines, and it prevents readers from identifying themselves with the protagonists.


To summarize, Graham Greene has left the realism behind him and reached the other end of the bridge¯the modernism. These modernistic techniques are very conspicuous and eye-catching in this story, and they contribute greatly for this story’s popularity in the literary circle.





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employment relations 1

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Employment or human relations covers all types of interactions among employees such as cooperative efforts, interpersonal and group relationships. The purpose of employment relations it to deal with the people the business employs and the issues arising from their employment. Acquiring, developing, maintaining and motivating staff are all aspects that are covered by the employment relations area. Employment relations are necessary as the employee is the most important part of a business Year Commerce Assignment Research/Report


Define Law


Laws are rules that are binding on the people in a certain community. Whenever people have lived together in groups they have made laws to govern their behaviour and activities.


Outline sources of law


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The three sources of law are as follows,


Legislative The Australian government and each of the state governments have houses of parliament which legislate or make the laws. The Australian parliament make laws which apply to all Australians. The state parliaments make laws which apply to residents and visitors to their states. Laws passed by parliaments are called statute law.


Judiciary The law courts which interpret statute law, are known as judiciary. The courts also decide disputes between individuals and try people who are accused of breaking the law. The way that the court interpret particular laws comes to be accepted as the law itself. Laws of this type are called common law, judge-made law or case law.


Executive The executive includes the governor-general, the political party in government for example the Australian Labour Party, the public service, the police and armed forces. These make up the people who are responsible for administering the law, enforcing it.


Outline 4 differences between CIVIL and CRIMINAL law and the different trial procedure in each


The judiciary consists of the courts which interpret the law. Common law (judge-made, or case law) is law made by judges when they hear cases in court. Most courts in Australia hear criminal and civil cases. Common law is based on decisions made by judges in previous cases over many years.


Differences


Civil


1. Involves a dispute between individuals.


. It aims at settling a dispute.


. Damages are in the form of financial payment.


4. Include divorce proceedings, claims for debt and disputes involving contracts.


Criminal


1. Involves breaking the law.


. It aims at settling a dispute.


. It may end in a punishment such as a fine, imprisonment or both.


4. Include theft, assault, failure to pay taxation and driving an unregistered motor vehicle.





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Saturday, May 12, 2012

just a beauty contest

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Physical Appearance


The value Australian society has placed on physical appearance and how that affects a young woman’s values.





By Tegan Kachyckyj


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Just A Beauty Contest





Hypothesis


The value Australian society has placed on physical appearance does affect a young woman’s value of herself and of others.


Contents


Title page…page 1


Hypothesis…page


Introduction…page 4


Log…page 7


Chapter One � The History…page 11


Chapter Two � Now…page 15


Chapter Three � The Three Elements…page 0


Conclusion…page 0


Resource List…page





Introduction





Would Prince Charming ever have come to rescue Snow White if she were not the most beautiful in the land? For good or bad the answer is probably ‘no, he wouldn’t have given it a second thought.’ But life isn’t a fairy tale right? But then again the statement above translated into the real world isn’t such a distant concept…a boy finding a girlfriend at a “dance party”, but would he have given her a second thought if she weren’t physically appealing, and that does have to affect a girls idea of what’s important and socially acceptable.


The topic of research that I have decided to undertake is the value that Australian society has placed on physical appearance and how that affects a young woman’s values. Psychological studies show that men rank physical beauty as the highest among other attributes that they seek in women. Most women go through the daily ritual of either applying make-up, brushing their hair, applying moisturizer, or even spraying perfume. All this for the sake of being found attractive. But why? Because society has placed such an importance on being “beautiful”.


There are several reasons as to why I have chosen to under go an extensive research of the importance of physical beauty. The main reason is that this issue directly affects me; a young woman growing up in Australian society. On a conscious level I don’t let it play a major role in my life, or affect my opinions and feelings towards someone. I am currently seventeen so physical appearance plays a role in my life whether I want it to or not, being judged at school and being stereotyped into groups simply from the way one looks is the ‘norm’. This discriminating, and sometimes hurtful behaviour can negatively affect a person emotionally for years, but it can also toughen them up for the ‘real world’. I decided this would be a good topic for my pip as I would like to take a closer look at how deeply this affects our lives, especially mine, and further my knowledge of the society around me.


This topic is relevant to the society and culture course because its main focus is on the person, it affects things such as personality, individual development, relationships, self identity, self worth, socialisation, and alienation. It also relates to the three concepts of Culture, Society and Time on a more general scale. The Culture; my PIP is focused on values, and is affected by prejudice and stereotypes. Society also comes into play through socialisation, class, groups, and status. Time also plays a role, mainly through my cross cultural component, but can also been seen throughout the chapters. I believe doing this in-depth study will help me to gain a better understanding of myself, and how the society I live in works.


I have elected to do a variety of methodologies so I can gain the most accurate and widespread knowledge as possible for my elected topic. My primary research will be found through doing participant observation, and content analysis of several media channels. I will also be using secondary resources to gain more widespread information such as books, magazines, the Internet, newspapers, and I will also be using the media to do a case study.


My cross-cultural component will be a comparison between generations, which have been more affected by this hegemony that has been perpetuated through society.


Log





The Log


November 00


I have a topic problem - I was going to do self mutilation, but I decided that the topic would be too depressing and the content could verge on boring if I don’t do it right. I plan to make a trip to the State library in the holidays to look at previous PIP’s to give myself an idea for a topic.


December 00


I’m getting carried away with the holiday season and I still haven’t made progress with a topic or made it to the State library. I’ve emailed my old Society and Culture teacher today with my problems, and I’m still waiting for a reply. I received an email from Mrs. Jobe she suggested the topic ‘Coming of Age on the Central Coast’, but I don’t think I’ll do it as it doesn’t really interest me. Time to start again. I wrote back to Mrs. Jobe about a topic I had loosely thought of ‘image’, and she likes the idea.


January 00


I’ve relapsed into the ‘Lazy holiday syndrome’, and I’m a little concerned about my topic choice and I know I need to define it but the question is how? I finally visited the State library, but it didn’t help very much as I was only allowed to look at the Pip’s under strict supervision which made me nervous, so I was unable to concentrate.


February 00


The holidays are now over, so I really have no choice but to get stuck back into it, which I guess is a good thing. I’ve been thinking about the image idea and have decided to go ahead with it, I was thinking “I’m not popular enough to be different” for the title.


March 00


I went to the state library today and had a look at some resources and books on my topic � I thought they might give me an idea on how I could define my topic. But regrettably this was not the case. I have decided that instead of my previous title I will call my PIP “Just a Beauty Contest” I have also defined my topic. I have decided to how the value Australian society has placed on physical appearance has affected a young woman’s value of herself and of others.


April 00


I have started on gathering research and doing my methodologies. Its hard work, but still quite interesting. There is quite a bit of information, but some of it is not exactly the kind of information I want which is annoying to say the least. I also carried out my participant observation methodology.


May 00


I have completed my Introduction, both my methodologies, and my first chapter I’m pretty pleased with myself. I’ve also started on my second and third chapter.


June 00


Well two months left and it’s all over. I’ve done the whole draft of the PIP, I don’t know whether I’m happy with it, but at least I’ve got time to amend stuff I don’t like.


July 00


Well only a month to go and I think I might just make it. Editing time. I have really enjoyed this time, even though I have been stressed throughout it was definitely an experience to remember!


Chapter One





History


Close your eyes, think of a time where the woman’s main priority was to look after her husband, the children, make more children, and look perfect twenty-four/seven. This wasn’t a century ago, this was just fifty years ago, in the mid nineteen fifties and early nineteen sixties. World war two had recently ended, and the population had just seen an immense decrease, so what was a woman to do? Procreate of course! It was the only thing a woman could do to help our nation! When discussing this topic with a teacher I was told that when she had her first child and her husband was coming to see her, all her mother could tell her to do was to “go and fix your hair and put some make-up on” this may seem ridiculous but it’s true. Beauty idols were not only beautiful, they were flawless, to call them perfect would not be embellishing the truth. It was these ‘super-women’ that ‘normal’ everyday women had to measure up to, but there was one difference. These ‘super-women’ were working women, they didn’t have families and they had people cooking and cleaning for them, not the other way around, or was this image of being a super woman the face they showed the public, an illusion? It was all about presentation and presence…so they of course had to give the impression of having it ‘all together’ with an ease that’s almost inhuman. Whether an illusion or reality being compared to a superwoman, is an enormous pressure to be placed under when you are an average woman , living an average lifestyle.





Jean Shrimpton, or Shrimpie as she hated to be called, was one of the most famous globally known models of the nineteen-sixties, with flawless skin, stars in her eyes and all round head turning facial features, it was no surprise that Elle nominated her “The Most Beautiful Girl in the World,”1 and Glamour named her model of the year in 161. Shrimpton caused a worldwide scandal when she wore a miniskirt to the Melbourne Cup on November , 165, as it was considered un-proper to wear anything with such a short hemline in those days. She made a big impact on the fashion industry in that act of ‘indecency’, but after a while others followed and it became the fashion. Jean Shrimpton may not have been Australian herself, but she definitely affected the women (and men) of Australia. How? Well quite simple really, you see the majority of young women, in particular young Australian women just couldn’t live up to the standard that Jean Shrimpton and other women in the lime light such as Sophia Loren, Twiggy, Katherine Hepburn, Marilyn Monroe, Grace Kelly and Audrey Hepburn set.





Sophia Loren ‘Twiggy’ Katherine Hepburn Marilyn Monroe Grace Kelly Audrey Hepburn


These women were idols for the everyday woman, and the majority of women would strive to look like them, hours spent in front of the mirror with a magazine picture in front of them trying to get that perfect look. It was of course impossible, as these stars had the natural beauty of course but they also had make-up artists, hair stylists, and fashion stylists. Thus the negative effect on their self-esteem was compounded.


At one point in time all of these women were extremely well known and looked up to. The media portrayed them to have perfect lives, and therefore the majority of Australian women believed they had to follow suit. This in turn affected their values, about themselves and others. Instead of personality and what a person could give from the inside it was what a person looked like on the outside that was placed of higher value, this of course affected everything; the media, advertisements, who one would socially interact with, and of course marriage partners.


The main major influence on this century’s attitudes towards beauty was the growth of the film industry. For the first half of the century, all major beauty icons were film actresses. It was a medium that allowed women who would have previously been overlooked to shine. Beauty was an essential attribute for a working class woman to become successful in Hollywood. So its no wonder that young women wanted to and still want to be like them, from the outside it looks as though they have everything; beauty, money, popularity, and acceptance. Thus young women strived to achieve acceptance from society through physical beauty.


Chapter Two





Now


Today’s society has seen huge increases on the importance placed on physical beauty by our society, particularly in young women. What will it do to a young woman’s identity? Simply put it will make them think less of themselves, compare themselves to models, and try to change themselves to fit today’s ‘normal’ ideas of how a young woman should look. Not only does being physically attractive help you to get a good job, perfect boyfriend, but also helps with acceptance. Acceptance with others. ‘According to Kant, “The judgment of beauty is different from cognitive or moral judgment because it is effected subjectively, that is exclusively in reference to the person making the judgment.” For a judgment to be truly ‘aesthetic’, rather than merely idiosyncratic, the person making the judgment must be adamant that their opinion is in agreement. Nancy Baker’s definition in The Beauty Trap is more concerned with intangible personal qualities. “A truly beautiful woman makes the best of her physical assets but, more importantly, she also radiates a personal quality which is attractive.” Whereas Arthur Marwick, author or Beauty in History defines a woman’s physical beauty in more direct terms; “The beautiful are those who are immediately exciting to almost all the opposite sex.”’1


The main reason most teenage girls want to be physically attractive is so they can be accepted. This ‘ideal’ has been perpetuated through the media, and it doesn’t help that the majority of famous women are beautiful. This leads a young woman to think that to be accepted she must be beautiful, she must be physically appealing. But is it appealing to the opposite sex, or the same sex? More and more I am beginning to think it is more to be accepted by the same sex. I believe that young women in general tend to be more socially judgmental of other women than males are of each other or the opposite sex. Because whom a girl is seen with is also a big part of acceptance, if a girl is seen as being friends with a “beautiful” girl i.e. popular then she will more than likely be accepted into that ‘popular group’. Peer pressure often makes her appearance and looks become almost an obsession. Dissatisfaction is all too common � for example about half of all high school girls are on some form of weight control regime, and even plastic surgery has become increasingly desirable for younger women.


Research proves that in today’s society personal values, perceived body image and vanity were major factors of influence in the purchasing process of young Australian women.1 Also according to other research physical beauty is a strong judge of whether or not a woman will marry, and of the socioeconomic status of her husband. With all this research, research that is readily available to young women, its no wonder that they feel they must be attractive to have a great life! Therefore with this belief in mind a young woman’s values begin to change.


Through content analysis I discovered that the media strongly promoted young women to be beautiful, although I did find some articles trying to encourage young women to eat properly, be positive about their weight, and to know that one doesn’t have to be beautiful to be valued. These article’s do try to encourage women to value their intelligence, rather than beauty, and personality over body shape, but the accompanying pictures and advertising strategies being used are saying a totally different thing, the women they use are beautiful, and have the ‘perfect’ body. As the old clich� says “A picture says a thousand words.” If this is true, what message is the media sending out there? ‘Sure have high self esteem, and be intelligent.’ But if your not stereotypically ‘beautiful’ you won’t have this…or this… etc. the list goes on. An article titled ‘why models got so skinny’ featured in the 00 February Cosmopolitan talks about how “twenty years ago catwalk models had killer curves and a healthy glow. By the ‘0s skeletal figures and sunken faces were it. How did the waif look become so popular?”1 The article goes on about how models have always been a few sizes smaller than an average sized woman. Katie Ford CEO of Ford Models says that she “believes that it started with the illustrators who drew long, stretched-out bodies in their sketches in the forties.”1 Also according to Jeff Kolsurd, owner of Q Model Management in the US “The models are definitely skinnier and more petite that they used to be.” Where as statistics prove that generally speaking women’s sizes have actually increased over the decades. According to this article some people theorise that it is the female consumers that actually drive the trend. That is that models are thinner because women prefer to look at skinnier women. It also states that even though this might be true in part, but fashion moguls say there are other forces at work. The designers only supply one size of their outfit and if the models auditioning don’t fit that size, they don’t get the ‘gig’. In 1 a new trend came about, it was given a contemptuous name “heroin chicks” by fashion critics, the trend was that of very thin models and as Calvin Klein said ‘Childlike, womanlike thing’. And when this phase started slightly larger (but still thin) models lost their work to these thin “heroin chicks”. Among other things it’s this kind of ‘trend’ that encourages women to value looks, and body size over their own and other people’s personality. It also promotes an unhealthy idea of body image which can lead to some very serious implications such as anorexia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and obesity.





Chapter Three





The Three Components


The Face…make-up, plastic surgery





The pressures of being a young woman in today’s society are huge. Pressure to be perfect in every which way is anything but rare. The pressures come from both the macro and micro world. The main offender in the Macro world is the media. The media is telling them that “If they don’t look ‘beautiful’ and aren’t deemed as attractive to both the opposite and same sex that they aren’t ‘normal’” or perhaps I shall go as far to say that the media also tells them that “They won’t be accepted into society as readily as the more beautiful woman.” And the micro world its their peers pressuring them to ‘fit’ in.


From puberty onwards, young girls use cosmetics in order to look ‘prettier’ to attract the opposite sex and also to be accepted by their peers. And their mothers do the same, they use make-up to disguise flaws of age and maintain a youthful appearance.1 But the cosmetics boom does have its adversaries many feminists believe the marketing of cosmetics, along with high fashion, to be an exploitation of women by male industry moguls. Some women even resent having to use cosmetics to compete in the workforce. But for many women, the cosmetics ritual is not a chore or a necessary evil, but an enjoyable activity in itself. The question is not whether or not it’s a chore.1


The cosmetic surgery industry is also growing by the day, and the advertising for it is everywhere � easily accessible to young women; magazines, newspapers, the Internet, and television. Its popularity has increased quite dramatically in the past decade among everyday working class women. But cosmetic surgery is not a new concept, according to Louise Haywood (Perceptions of Female Beauty in the Twentieth Century by Louise Wood http//barneygrant.tripod.com/p-erceptions.htm) there were some bizarre and painful tools out there for the purpose of beautifying � one in particular “M.Trietly’s Nose Shaper” which was a metal object which was held over the nose by straps buckled round the head and adjusted with screws, its purpose? To shape a woman’s nose of course!


Plastic surgery is used to enhance a woman’s (or male’s) facial features or physique. Having a ready market for plastic surgery says one thing that it’s ok to think you’re not pretty enough and that it can be ‘fixed’. No only does it give permission for people to think like that, it encourages them to. Which on the larger scale affects a young woman’s values of herself. This can result in alienation � if a woman doesn’t conform she may be forced to feel socially unaccepted and alienated.


Weight � The BIG Issue





Promoting an unhealthy idea of body image can lead to some very serious implications such as anorexia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and obesity. These are classified as eating disorders, and although an eating disorder is a very serious condition, it can lead into an even more serious situation hospitalisation. In the 00 December ‘Cosmopolitan’ there was an article about how a girl � Melinda Hutchings over came this widespread eating disorder. Even though it’s a personal recount rather than facts, it does try and promote to people that overcoming an illness is ‘the best thing one can do.’ But to be able to get over a disorder, you must first have one. When I showed several people this article I asked their thoughts on it, and shockingly one girl said to me that it actually gave her a good idea for how to lose weight � but that’s it, that her diet wouldn’t turn into a serious disorder. So what is this article really promoting? True it is an article about positive body image, but it also gives young women ideas of ways to go about hiding such things. I would know this as I myself have had an eating disorder bulimia and when I read articles about such things, it wouldn’t deter me from continuing them it would just give me ideas to be able to continue wreaking havoc on my body, although I didn’t know I was doing it at the time. In an additional article titled “We’re Fat and We’re Angry”1 I discovered a whole new notion. The article is about women who are over size sixteen and up to a size twenty-eight that are extremely unimpressed with the media and fashion industry. Jodie Hunter who is a size eighteen, entered a competition in a magazine to win a copy of a wedding dress worn by a celebrity. The dress, however, was only offered in a size eight or ten. When Jodie wrote in to complain they replied by saying it was too much trouble to offer a custom size. This would make the majority of the young female population want to lose weight, as it would be seen that they were not a ‘proper’ or ‘normal’ size, how ironic that the average woman is a twelve. When Cosmo featured Kelly Osbourne on their cover last year they received several letters congratulating them for “having a real woman with a real woman’s shape.”1 But they also received criticism for not going far enough “Cosmo including women sizes six to sixteen in its pages may be a good start but why not regularly feature a size twenty-six or thirty-two in fashion pages or on the cover?”1 The answer is simple because it could promote obesity, it’s almost giving permission to be overweight which is ‘the biggest body problem in Australia’. Also by putting larger women in articles and the cover of magazines (as well as un-averagely slim women) they don’t target the majority of Australian women.


Who is What Dress Size in Australia?1


Dress Size Percentage of Australian women


Eight and under 6%


Ten 15%


Twelve 4%


Fourteen 1%


Sixteen 14%


Eighteen %


Twenty %


Twenty Two and Larger 4%


Statistics provided by Roy Morgan Research


As one can see from this table the majority of women in Australia are a size twelve, and the ‘runner up’ is size fourteen which is one/two dress size/s smaller than the largest size cosmopolitan models are.


This article also proves that yes, it’s true not all magazines use bigger women, and perhaps they should. I don’t agree with the concept of magazines using bigger than average models OR skinnier than average models as I believe both promote an unhealthy idea of body image. Young women are often exposed to capricious pictures of women, and these have been known to set the standard for the appearance a young woman should desire to be. And due to this we are seeing the vast majority of young women, falling victim to compulsive calorie counting, ritual weigh ins and dangerous crash diets. Even women who are of an average, sometimes slimmer weight perceive themselves as too heavy and continue to pursue this ideal’. Chronic dieting has also been directly attributed to the social pressure on females to achieve a nearly impossible thinness, constantly reinforced by the media and advertising.1 This also strengthens the idea that the Australian media’s values of physical appearance directly influences a young woman’s values of herself and her peers.


Fashion





Fashion is an outlet for how one expresses themselves. But sometimes that outlet can be taken too far and, get twisted into ideas of what one should wear and that if one wears a certain item than they must be this and so on. At school if one doesn’t wear ‘branded’ clothes they are perceived as not ‘cool’ enough, and it’s even the same in life after school. On a sub-conscious level when first introduced to a person a judgment is made on that person according to what they wear. Before we hear their hopes, there dreams, if they’re married, or what they like to do in their spare time we make judgments based on their outward appearance � what they’re wearing. This can affect ones self-image and identity, especially if they are stereotyped into an image that they do not wish to conform to. Consumerism is a culture centered on the promotion, sale and acquisition or consumer goods, such as clothes, the fashion industry is mainly centered around consumerism; if there’s no consumer not only would there be no point, the fashion industry wouldn’t even exist.


For example when I carried out my participant observation I dressed up, and I dress down. I got quite different reactions from people, when I dressed down I wore, baggy jeans and a loose fitting t-shirt a real ‘daggy’ one that said “Hugs not Drugs”, I was approached by not one male, and whenever I tried to approach a member of the opposite sex I was rejected quite blatantly. However, when I dressed up elegantly in a classy dress and high heels (quite maturely) I was allowed into a bar, without being asked for I.D, and was approached by seven older, more distinguished men. Of the six males I approached I was rejected by none, and asked for my phone number five times. On the last participant observation activity I dressed ‘tarty’, I wore a short black skirt, black knee-high boots, and a low cut black singlet top. I was approached by sixteen young males and of the six young men I approach I was not rejected by one.


This is an advertisement for a brand called ‘Moschino’ who mainly sell a range of denim clothing.





If this advertisement doesn’t convince you that some advertisements do not promote a good body image, and DO promote to be ‘beautiful’ then I don’t know what will. For someone to buy these clothes they may be under the illusion that they have to look like her, or they wont look as good in the clothes as she would.


Conclusion





When I started on this wild roller coaster called the PIP I had no idea how much I had left to learn about life. Yes in physical age I may only be nine months older, but in my head and heart I feel I have matured a great deal. When I received the task I thought it would be simple and that I wouldn’t have to commit myself to it, well after a month or two of doing the pip I realized how disillusioned that thought was. I’ve gained a better understanding of not just how to carry out methodologies � both primary and secondary, but I learnt a lot about myself and my peers around me. I discovered that not only was my Micro world responsible for the person I had become but the Macro world as well.


During the period that my PIP was carried out I experienced a variety of emotions � the main two of them probably being stress and enjoyment which is an odd mixture to be feeling at the same time. Not only do I feel I have matured, but I feel that my researching skills have broadened and that my communication skills have also grown.


When conducting my participant observation, I was confronted with some of my own feelings and perhaps unconscious judgments towards the way people dress and sometimes I felt like giving it all in. But I found within myself a strength I hadn’t known before and pushed on. Before embarking on this long, uphill journey I thought I wasn’t affected, but through the process of doing my personal interest project I became aware that I am more affected than I realised, I am also more aware of external influences in regards to beauty and physical appearance and now I make a conscious choice of whether I buy into it or not. Not only that, but it made me more aware of the power and influence I may carry when I dress or friends dress a certain way. This has made me more conscious of the different cultures around me � and that people can be placed into high, low, and subcultures simply because of the way they dress or look. I couldn’t find any substantial facts that proved my hypothesis was true, and subsequently I believe that it mostly comes down to a personal opinion rather than facts and figures. Resource List





Magazines


Cosmopolitan issues February 00, April 00, November 00


I used this magazine/s for my primary methodology-content analysis, this was one of my most useful resources, as being a form of media I could use examples from the articles. The articles discuss different forms of physical appearance, and the values that are placed on these attributes.


Web Sites


www.swinginchicks.com first accessed on April the th 00.


This was a helpful website for the cross-cultural component of my PIP, as it discussed a range of beauty icons from the fifties to the nineties.


http//barneygrant.tripod.com/p-erceptions.htm first accessed on April the th 00.


This helped me gain insight into someone else’s notions and thoughts on not exact but a similar topic. It gave me quotes that I used throughout my central material and also gave me a more modern idea pf perceptions of beauty, which I used for my cross-cultural component.


www.deakin.edu.au/anzmac.addit_papers/p77.hall.pdf first accessed May 16th 00.


This site wasn’t the best of them all, but it did help with some statistics and did discuss values.


http//psychology.unn.ac.uk/nick/Eppp07/ts1d01.htm first accessed April 14th 00.


This gave me one quote that I footnoted about socio-economic status and values. I thought I would gain more from this website, but I did not.


http//www.uq.net.au/eda/documents/start.html first accessed May 16th 00.


This source helped with my third chapter in the weight section-as the website is about eating disorders, it helped me to better why and how eating disorders occur-which related into the media’s pressure.


www.marketing.unsw.edu.au/AMJ/V11_1/Napoli_etal.pdf accessed April 00.


This source was a great help with the weight section again, it gave me statistics and facts about my topic.


http//www.qsa.qld.edu.au/yrs1_10/kla/hpe/pdf/modules/qhm068.pdf


This source was quite helpful in that it provided some facts about values, and identity. Even though it is more of a teacher’s guide it posed some questions that made me think about my own information, and my PIP in general and where it was heading.


Books


How to recover from anorexia by Melinda Hutchings, Hale & Iremonger, 0th April, 00


This source was also good help for my third chapter, it talked about how this girl got through anorexia and it also contained some factual information too.


Good girls do swallow by Rachael Oakes-Ash Mainstream Publishing 0th September, 001


This source is about a girls struggle to stop hating her body, I found it a good use as she talked about all the things that (added to her weight yo-yo)


Identity and Personal Identity by John Perry, Hackett Publishing Co, 1st June, 00.


This source was more a philosophical book, rather than someone’s personal view and it helped me grasp where a person’s identity (and values) are formed.





40 Over 40 Forty Things Women Over Forty Need to Know About Getting Dressed by Brenda Kinsel, Wildcat Canyon Press, June 00.


I found this source quite ridiculous, as I believe that generally speaking most forty-something year olds know how to dress themselves. It simply goes through ways of looking better (for forty) and also lists places to buy clothes.


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