Saturday, December 31, 2011

Richmond football club

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Place rice in large bowl, fill with cold water and stir with hand. Drain; repeat process - times until water is almost clear. Drain rice in a strainer or colander for 15 minutes or longer, if possible. Meanwhile, prepare sushi vinegar Combine vinegar, sugar and salt and stir until sugar dissolves. Set aside until required.


Sushi tips and general info on page 14 of Japanese cook book.


To cook rice in rice cooker Place drained rice and the water in rice cooker, cover and switch onto cook. When cooker automatically switches to keep warm, leave to stand a further 10 minutes with lid on to complete cooking process.


To cook rice in saucepan Place drained rice and the water in a medium saucepan, cover tightly and bring to the boil. Reduce heat; simmer, covered tightly, for about 1 minutes or until all water is absorbed. Remove from heat and stand for 10 minutes with lid on.


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Spread rice out in a large, non-metallic flat-bottomed bowl or tub (preferably wood). Using a rice paddle, a flat wooden spoon or plastic spatula, repeatedly slice through rice at a 45° angle to break up any lumps and separate the grains, gradually pouring in the sushi vinegar at the same time. Not all the vinegar may be required; the rice shouldnt become too wet or mushy. Continue to slice, not stir because it squashes the grains, lifting and turning the rice from the outside into the center.


Fan the rice until it is almost cold. This will take about 5 minutes. Turn occasionally, which gives good flavour, texture and gloss to the rice. (An electric fan, on the low setting, can be used instead of a hand-held fan.) Do not overcool the rice or it will harden.


Keep the rice covered with a damp cloth to stop it drying out while making sushi (or put back in rice cooker if it has a non-stick surface).


Makes approx. cups


TIPS


Making perfect sushi rice


To successfully make sushi, short grain (Koshihikari) or medium grain (Calrose) rice should be used. It has the right texture, taste and consistency to gently stick together without being gluggy. Both types of rice should be available at most supermarkets.


The use of a rice cooker is highly recommended as it produces perfect rice every time. Absorption method in a saucepan or microwave also works well - simmer rice and water, covered, until all the liquid is absorbed. The rapid boil method (boiling the rice in lots of water) is not recommended.


Rinsing the rice - times before cooking, removes any rice powder left on the outside of the grains after milling, which could make the rice gluggy when cooked.


Use the same cup to measure the rice and the water.


1 rice cup (provided with rice cooker) = 150g uncooked rice;


1 metric measuring cup (50mls) = 00g uncooked rice.


Sushi vinegar


The proportions of the three ingredients used to make sushi vinegar (rice vinegar, sugar and salt), can be varied according to personal taste, or to make it sweeter or saltier.


Dont be afraid to experiment, but if preferred, ready made sushi vinegar can be


purchased at most Asian grocery stores and many Western supermarkets.


Sushi vinegar can be made ahead and refrigerated in an airtight container.


Because it is fairly mild, sushi vinegar also makes a great salad dressing.


To eat sushi


It is quite acceptable to eat sushi with fingers or chopsticks.


Pickled ginger is eaten in between bites to cleanse the palate, especially between different types of fish.


Avocado and cucumber sushi


ingredients


4 sheets nori seaweed


½ medium avocado, sliced


1 small green cucumber, sliced


Sushi rice


00g (1 cup) white short-grain rice


40ml (1¾ cups) water


½ tablespoons mirin


1 teaspoon sugar


1 teaspoon salt


teaspoons rice vinegar


Peanut sauce


1 tablespoon oil


1 small onion, finely chopped


tablespoons smooth peanut butter


pinch ground chilli


15ml (½ cup) coconut milk


teaspoons plain flour


method


Place 1 sheet of seaweed on board. Spread quarter of the sushi rice over three-quarters of the seaweed sheet. Spread with quarter of the peanut sauce. Place quarter of the avocado and cucumber in a line 5cm from 1 edge of rice. Roll seaweed around filling to form a log; wrap in plastic wrap, refrigerate until firm. Repeat with remaining seaweed, sushi rice, peanut sauce, avocado and cucumber. Slice rolls to serve.


Sushi rice Rinse rice under cold water until water is clear; drain well. Combine rice and the water in pan, cover with tight-fitting lid, bring to boil, simmer minutes, remove from heat, stand 7 minutes before removing lid. Transfer rice to bowl. Combine rice, sugar, salt and vinegar in pan, stir over heat until sugar is dissolved. Stir mirin mixture into rice; cool.


Peanut sauce Heat oil in pan, add onion, cook, stirring, until onion is soft. Stir in peanut butter, chilli and blended milk and flour. Stir over heat until mixture boils and thickens; cool.


Serves 4.


Recipe can be made a day ahead.


Storage Covered, in refrigerator.


Freeze Not suitable.


Microwave Not suitable.


California Rolls


ingredients


cups short grain rice


500ml ( cups) water


80ml (1/ cup) white rice vinegar


1 tablespoon sugar


1 teaspoon salt


nori sheets (compressed seaweed)


wasabi (Japanese mustard)


your choice of fillings including smoked salmon, cucumber, avocado, omelette etc, thinly sliced


Pickled Ginger


1 large ginger root, peeled


1 teaspoon sugar


white rice vinegar


method


Wash the rice under cold, running water until the water is clear.


Drain the rice well, then place in a pot with the water, cover with a tight-fitting lid, bring to the boil, reduce heat and simmer for 15 minutes. Remove from the heat and stand for a further 15 minutes before removing the lid.


While the rice is cooking, combine the rice vinegar, sugar and salt, and heat until the sugar and salt have dissolved. Cool.


Turn the rice out into a large shallow bowl and run a spatula through it to separate the grains. Add sugared rice vinegar and stir through the rice.


Lay half a sheet of nori over a bamboo rolling mat and spread thinly with rice in a strip about 10 cm wide. Arrange filling in fine strips along the rice. Roll up tightly using the bamboo mat. Store in refrigerator until required, then slice into cm thick slices and serve.


Serve slices topped with pickled ginger and soy for dipping.


Pickled Ginger Slice well peeled ginger into thin lengths with the vegetable peeler. Place ginger in jar.


Heat vinegar and add sugar. Stir until sugar has dissolved and pour over ginger. When cool, seal and store. Allow to rest for days before using if possible. Ginger will turn a pink colour naturally!


Sashimi Rolls


We used a combination of red (salmon), oily (tuna) and white (snapper) fish for this recipe.


ingredients


00g sashimi fish


1/ Lebanese cucumber (65g), halved lengthways


1/4 medium red capsicum (50g)


1 green onion (green part only)


1/4 cup (60ml) Japanese soy sauce


method


1. Sharpen knife using a steel; wipe knife. Cut fish into paper-thin slices.


. Remove and discard seeds from cucumber. Remove


and discard seeds and membrane from capsicum. Cut cucumber, capsicum and onion into long thin strips;


trim strips to approximately the same size as the width of the fish slices.


. Place one fish slice on board; place one or two pieces of each vegetable at one end. Roll fish to enclose filling; repeat with remaining fish and filling. Serve sashimi rolls with soy sauce in a separate bowl.


Tip A toasted seaweed sheet (yaki-nori), or a few garlic chives or blanched spinach leaves, can also be used, trimmed to the same size as each piece of fish. Rolls


can be tied with chives, if desired.





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chronic persistant hunger

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Famine means having no food at all. The majority of all famine cases are caused by man made or natural disasters such as war drought and earth quakes. By planning for these disasters the problem of famine could be significantly reduced. Such planning would involve predicting what’s going to happen, where it’s going to happen, how many people are likely to be effected or involved, what recourses are going to be needed when the disaster occurs (food, money and medical supplies) and who’s going to need to help (doctors, nurses, aid workers and people to help rebuild the land and homes of people effected) or even in some cases, preventing the disaster from happening. The effects of famine can be reduced but even if famine was eradicated this would only rid the world of 10% of all hunger deaths.


The much larger contributing factor to deaths caused by hunger is chronic persistent hunger this is a silent, day to day killer that takes the lives of 0 000 people every day, ¾ of whom are children under the age of 5.(1) A staggering 800 million people live in the condition of chronic persistent hunger. In developing countries, 60% lack basic sanitization, % don’t have access to clean water and 1. billion people around the world live on less than $1 u.s.


The vast majority of people suffering from chronic persistent hunger are women. Approximately 80% of the worlds refugees are women and children, / of the worlds illiterate are female. Despite women working / of the worlds working hours, producing half the world’s food, women only earn 10% of the world’s income and own a minuscule 1% of the world’s property. In developing societies women are most affected by hunger, they eat last and least. Those suffering form chronic persistent hunger are not suffering due to a shortage of food, the world produces more than enough food for everyone.


Developing countries rely heavily on the export of a lot of the produce grown in their country, foods such as sugar cane, rice, tea and coffee. Enough nutritious foods are produced in many of the developing countries but it’s not staying in the country its being exported to richer countries like America, Australia and England. Hungry people are being made to rely on donations from organisations and the government. The environment in which they live, for instance, the amount of rain determines the outcome of crops, and the severity of the diseases and the amount of treatment available.


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Diseases such as malaria and aids are killing hundreds of thousands of African people every year. These diseases are being so widely spread because of the conditions in which they live. Whole communities are being infected with malaria because of unhygienic conditions


Chronic persistent hunger sufferers shouldn’t be considered as the problem. The world does not have 1 billion mouths to feed- it has 1 billion hard-working, courageous human beings who’s creativity and productivity must be unleashed. Hunger is an ongoing problem because people lack the opportunity to bring their own hunger to an end.





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Friday, December 30, 2011

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

If you order your cheap custom essays from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder paper right on time.

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The personal account that I read about Dr. S’s obsessive-compulsive disorder drastically changed my opinion of the mental illness. I did not realize that the disorder could be so serious and debilitating. I had very little knowledge of the illness and did not completely understand the symptoms or the affect it had on the inflicted individual.


When I had first heard of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder I thought they were victims of extreme paranoia. People with OCD checked the knobs on the stove more than usual because they were afraid of a fire or they checked the locks on the doors frequently because they were afraid that a perpetrator might burglarize them. This is as serious as I thought the illness was. After reading the story of Dr. S and his son, I now understand that this disorder interferes with the normal life of the individual and their family. All aspects of the person’s life are affected.


The OCD attack that Dr.S experienced on the drive to take his final exam was very surprising to me. The attack actually caused him to be delusional. He believed that he had hit someone while driving down the highway even though there was no evidence that an accident did occur. He was so concerned about it that he went back to check the area several times. After he would check the area and find no signs of an accident he would start driving but he could not get the thoughts out of his head. This caused him to be late for his exam and he could not concentrate while taking the exam because all he could think about was that he hit someone. The OCD attack lasted the entire day and became so severe that he even checked his car several times before he went to bed to see if there were dents in the fender from a person’s body. The severity and the length of the attack amazed me. I thought that an attack of this nature only lasted for a few minutes not an entire day.


When I first began to read this account my first impression was that people with OCD are crazy. How can someone believe that something they made up in their head is real when there is no physical evidence to support this? As I continued to read the story of Dr. S, I learned that this is a disorder that he has experienced since he was a child and that other members in his family have the illness as well. This leads me to believe that it could be caused by biological factors and is hereditary. This means that these people did not just simply “go crazy.” It appears that OCD is an illness and the people affected with it have no control over it. The disorder, in fact, has control over the individual.


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Dr. S. began to notice that his son had displayed bizarre behavior in his adolescent years. He would dangle his fingers or strings in front of his face for hours. It would take the child 15 minutes to put his socks on because other things distracted him. From this, I come to the conclusion that OCD is not unlike other diseases such as, diabetes or heart disease, which can be passed down from generation to generation.


I no longer believe that people with obsessive-compulsive disorder are crazy. I believe that they have an illness and that they need the proper medical care to at the least, relieve the symptoms of OCD, but more importantly to rid them of the debilitating disorder. My idea that people with OCD were just paranoid and ridiculous has vanished.


These people are suffering. The disease has taken control of their lives and the lives of their families. It can destroy the individual as well as the people they are associated with. As surreal as the delusions may seem to us, they are very real to the person inflicted with OCD. People that we know, that are very close to us could have OCD and we may not know it.





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SPAMMING

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ABSTRACT


Spam is unsolicited junk E-mail that commercial companies send out asking you to buy their goods and services. At times it may contain inducements to visit the seller’s site. The E-mail usually contains a phone no to call, an address to send money to, or a website to visit to buy the goods and services.


Spam is sometimes termed as Unsolicited Bulk Email, or UBE, is the Internet mail (email) that is sent to a group of recipients who have not requested it. A mail recipient may have at one time asked a sender for bulk email, but then later asked that sender not to send any more email or otherwise not have indicated a desire for such additional mail; hence any bulk email sent after that request was received is also UBE.


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It was originally used to refer to unsolicited postings for commercial products or services on Usenet, especially when there were cross-posted to several newsgroups.


These spams cause many problems, mainly to the recipients, recipients’ destination operators, Internet backbone etc. Internet research company Jupiter Media Metrix predicts users will receive about 06 billion junk e-mailings by 006.


The spammers use no of ways to send the spam to our mailbox. They will get the email addresses of the people from different areas by different ways and they prepare a mailing list. Then a mail server will send these bulk mail to all the recipients in the mailing list.


There are many ways for blocking a spam, but none are very effective to be completely eradicating the spam from the network. The users have to be careful, not to register in any unauthorized sites and all. Nowadays laws are made against these spammers and we can even file case against the spammers.





CONTENTS


1. INTRODUCTION


. PROBLEMS CAUSED BY SPAMMING


. HOW EMAIL SPAM IS SENT


4. HOW EMAIL SPAM IS BLOCKED


4.1 FILTERING


4. LEGAL


4. ECONOMIC


5. CONCLUSION


6. BIBLIOGRAPHY





1. INTRODUCTION


What is a Spam?


Originally, Spam was (and still is) a tinned luncheon meat made by Hormel. Spam, in the Internet context, is used to describe the many copies of the same message, which flood the net in an attempt to force feed people who would not otherwise choose to receive it. Spam can be either Unsolicited Commercial E-mail (UCE) or postings of the same message to Usenet an excessive number of times or Unsolicited Bulk Email (UBE). Also, more recently it is used to describe e-mails, which whilst not being commercial or spam in the traditional sense, can place a considerable load on the resources of the net usually e-mails with a pass it on theme.


What is Spamming?


Spamming is the sending of multiple or mass copies of either unsolicited or inappropriate letters. There are mainly two methods used when spamming newsgroup postings (known as Velveeta) and email messaging (known as Spam).


Unsolicited Commercial E-mail (UCE) or Unsolicited Bulk E-mail (UBE)


Unsolicited You didnt ask for it


CommercialBulk Having profit as a primary aim rather than artistic valueNot a single or small group of recipients instead 10’s or thousands or millions


E-mail Electronic mail


The first version of the spam used the term Unsolicited Commercial Email (UCE). That term was originally chosen because much of the early debate about UBE was centered in the United States where commercial speech can be regulated by the government but political and religious speech cannot. However, on reflection, because UBE is an international problem, the term UCE was changed in this report to UBE. Limitations on the control of UBE, such as having to have different laws for political UBE versus commercial UBE, will be a local matter.


UCE spam is advertising, often for dubious products, get-rich-quick schemes, or quasi-legal services. These products or services include Pyramid Selling, material of a sexual nature, and often spamming software itself (would you like to draw your product to the attention of 10,000 uninterested e-mail users?). When you open your e-mail you find youve been spammed with offers you didnt really want.


It is believed that the use of the term Spam in this context originates from the famous Monty Python sketch The Vikings, where Spam was everywhere and came with everything.


Usenet Spam


Usenet spam is a single message sent to many different Usenet newsgroups. Usually, any message, which has been posted, to many newsgroups are often not relevant to most or even all of them. Usenet Spam can be either of a commercial nature (selling something) or expressions of extreme (eg political, social) views - often pointing to web sites for further information.


Pass it on


Pass it on Spam is as much a nuisance as are the other types; a difference is that it is usually passed to you by someone you know, usually in ignorance rather than as a malicious act. Typical Pass it on e-mails include Hoax Virus warnings and gruesome (but true) stories


Some terms related to the topic are explained below


Destination Operator


Internet Email is processed by origination, relay and destination system (host) operators, primarily transmitting messages with the SMTP mail standard. An Origination Operator is an organization or individual that is responsible for the host which places a new piece of email into the Internet. A Relay Operator mediates email transmission between origination and destination systems. A Destination Operator is an organization or individual that maintains or controls a service for recipients of email and for allowing recipients to access their mail using a mail user agent. Destination Operators may also provide relay services and almost always provide origination service for the same users who are recipients.


A mail server that allows relaying processes an email message that neither originated from, nor sent to, a local user. The transaction has no legitimate reason to involve the mail server, which acts only as a relay point. Almost without exception, “spammers” are responsible.


These specialized terms are used here instead of the single, more common Internet Service Provider (ISP) because tens of millions of people get their mail service from organizations that are not ISPs. Almost everyone who gets email at their desk at work use their employers as a Destination Operator, but those companies are not ISPs. Also, many people get their Internet mail through free accounts in public libraries, schools, and so on, and the organizations running those mail servers should be differentiated from ISPs because they often are offering email access as a public service.


In many cases, ISPs which provide basic connectivity have no direct part in the problems associated with UBE. On the other hand, all Internet mail operators must deal with UBE problems every day. Hence, the terms introduced here include organizations providing Internet mail service to employees, as well as libraries and schools providing free service for their customers and also includes ISPs that include email within their set of products.


Recipient


A recipient is a person who receives email. (Programs can also receive email, but they do so on behalf of a person.) Most recipients usually receive email from two kinds of senders other people, and Mailing List Agents. Some email addresses refer


to a role within the organization (such as sales or postmaster) and might have multiple people processing email sent to it, or might have a software program respond automatically. In either case, UBE must still be handled by the recipient.


Mailing List Agent


A Mailing List Agent (MLA) is a software program that acts like a recipient, but does special processing upon receiving email it resends the email to a list of recipients. Hence an MLA is a special form of email relay. Many MLAs are controlled by people, but some are completely automatic and involve no human intervention or decision-making.


MLAs are sometimes called mailing lists or mailing list managers, although these terms do not define well the roles of the controlling software or of the people involved in controlling the software. Other terms, such as listserv, are sometimes used generically but actually refer to specific implementations of MLAs.


Note that an MLA is not a recipient because it is not the final destination for the message, even though its email address might have been used for the UBE. Mail sent to an MLA will most likely be re-sent to many people, and those people are the recipients of the original mail, even though that mail has processed and re-sent by the MLA.





. PROBLEMS CAUSED BY SPAMMING


Although the senders of UBE defend it as having little difference from traditional bulk mail, it in fact is quite different UBE shifts almost all the costs of the message onto the recipients and their Destination Operators. The negative effects of UBE can be categorized into the effects on recipients, on the recipients Destination Operators, and on the Internet backbone in general. Secondary effects also are felt by Origination Operators.


Further, many senders of bulk UBE use tactics which are often viewed as devious, and probably illegal, in order to reduce the cost to the sender or even to hide the true identity of the sender. Instead, costs are shifted from the actual sender to the receiver and their Destination operator. These tactics, which are becoming more common, are described separately because they are only tangentially related to UBE itself.


1) Effect on Recipients


End users are the ones who are most affected by UBE. The costs, to recipients, generally fall into two categories real costs and social costs.


a) Real Costs To Recipients


UBE costs money to every recipient, as if it was sent postage due. Probably the most important negative effect of UBE is the financial cost incurred transmitting it from the Destination Operators host to the recipient users host, such as through a modem. Many users have to pay their Internet access providers by the minute. Even users with fixed-cost Internet accounts often have to pay for the phone time to connect to their Internet access providers.


Multiply these costs by the hundreds of thousands or millions of users that many pieces of UBE go to, and you can see that the cost to recipients is quite high, even without taking into account the considerable costs to Destination Operators and the Internet backbone.


There are other costs paid by all UBE recipients that are similar to recipients of bulk postal mail. For instance, there is the time lost sorting UBE from wanted mail, the time lost opening unwanted UBE that is disguised as email that the user might want to read, and so on. As the quantity of UBE increases, the cost of doing this sorting can become quite significant. UBE is particularly an issue for companies where employees get email, since dealing with UBE is done on company time, thus causing lost productivity.


b) Social And Personal Costs


Widespread UBE has had a significant human cost as well. Many users know that posting to mailing lists or on Usenet news will likely cause them to receive UBE, so they no longer participate in what used to be the most vibrant communications medium on the Internet. The constant fear of irreversibly getting ones name on a mailing list has caused many people to avoid using them altogether.


Similarly, the act of having to sort through cleverly-worded UBE in order to find actual personal email has caused many people not to use email to its fullest potential. These types of effects are causing many new users to avoid checking their mail as often as they would otherwise like, again causing less use of what could be a valuable medium. Use of filters by a recipients email software can reduce some of this pain, but cannot eliminate it. The current state of filtering technology cannot distinguish between legitimate, personal email and UBE.


) Effects On Destination Operators


The costs of UBE go well beyond the recipient. Each Destination Operator pays for each email message received because a message takes up a certain amount of the Destination Operators connectivity and computer bandwidth. Further, if the message is stored by the Destination Operator for a recipient, the operator must pay for the storage and the maintenance of that storage. Although the cost of a single UBE email to an individual recipient might well be quite small, the aggregate cost can be considerable.


Depending upon their specific business model, Destination Operators handle the costs of UBE differently. If the Destination Operator is an Internet Service Provider, the costs of UBE are borne by the ISPs users, through higher prices or lower service. If the Destination Operator is an employer, the costs of UBE are often taken out of the general networking budget, meaning that UBE causes lower company profits. If the Destination Operator is someone offering a free public mail service, UBE causes them to be able to offer less service to their clients.


Many Destination Operators report that they bear an additional and considerable expense, one of having to educate people about the nature of UBE and why they are receiving it. Because UBE tends to diminish peoples desire to use the Internet, they are more likely to complain about it to their Destination Operators.


) Effects On The Internet Backbone


UBE sent over the Internet backbone causes delays for all Internet users. Further, because most UBE senders use mailing lists that have outdated addresses on them, many messages are rejected (bounced), causing the intended Destination Operator to send a return response, which wastes more bandwidth.


It takes up a great deal of Internet bandwidth when someone sends hundreds or thousands of email/postings. These mail/postings have to be routed all over the world, precious hard drive space on servers and individuals’ computers are taken up by these unwanted messages. (It may not seem like a lot, but having the same message a few hundred or thousand times on a server adds up quite quickly). People who receive these unwanted messages have to take the time to download, view and delete them, when they could be looking at messages that are more important.


4) Effects Caused By Malicious UBE Senders


Many of the complaints about UBE, by Destination Operators, stem from the common practice employed by UBE senders of misappropriating services. The methods of misappropriation, while technically easy to do, cause hundreds of thousands


of dollars of damage to Destination Operators per year by shifting the burden of sending the UBE on Destination Operators who are unrelated to the UBE sender.


The typical way that a deceptive UBE sender misappropriates service is to offload return mail and complaint handling onto an unsuspecting Origination or Relay


Operator by specifying one or more incorrect return addresses in the message itself. They route the UBE through an unrelated Origination Operators SMTP service. Both of these actions are quite easy to do and can make the source of the message almost untraceable, particularly if the UBE sender is using a short-lived Internet account that was obtained for the purpose of sending this UBE. The account is used once, to do the sending, and is never accessed again. Hence, the sender need not care at all whether its use for this purpose is ascertained.


Beyond the basic cost of deceptive use, the result of the unwanted mailing often causes many complaints to be directed at the Destination Operator that should instead have been directed at the UBE sender. These complaints can cause significant damage to the Destination Operator, such as by filling up mailboxes on the mail hosts and reducing service to legitimate users of the Destination Operator.


. HOW EMAIL SPAM IS SENT


Spam is send out as bulk E-mail, often to lists of 10,000 or more people at once. It’s inexpensive to send so its use has exploded on the Internet to the point where it is common for someone to get several dozen of these messages in a single day. Spam has become enough of an annoyance to warrant calls to ban it outright.


To send out unsolicited bulk E-mail, a spammer first needs to get a list of E-mail addresses. Often, spammers buy the lists from the companies that compile them. These companies use automated software robots to get E-mail addresses. The robots get the lists from a number of sources. They are


Ø Usenet newsgroups - The software robots go into the Usenet newsgroups and harvest E-mail address of the person who posted it.


Ø E-mail Directories - Email addresses are harvested from the Email directories on the Web sites that allow people to look up others’ E-mail addresses. The software robots go into it and grab all the addresses in the directory.


Ø Chat Areas - The software robots go into chat areas, such as those on America Online, and gather E-mail addresses.


The spammer either buys the resulting E-mail list or compiles one of his/her own. The spammer uses the list, along with the bulk mailing software, and sends a message to every person on the list. It may be a return address, Web site, or phone number where the receiver can get more information about the goods /services being sold. Some spammers will include a return address where someone who no longer wants to receive spasm can send message and be taken off the spam list. When the Remove message is received a robot automatically takes the person off the list. However, spammers rarely do this because most people would opt not to be on the spam lists.





Fig � .1





The fig .1 shows how an E-mail spam is sent and can be removed from the list when the user returns a Remove message.


But as the spammers realized that spam offends most people, they hide their true E-mail addresses. They “forge” parts of the message header in the E-mail address such as the From, Sender, and Reply fields so it appears that the E-mail has come from someone other than the spammer.


As a further way of hiding their true addresses, spammers relay their bulk spasm to a server that is not associated with them and then have that server send out the bulk spam. Sometimes spammers have the bulk spam relayed among several different servers to make it even more difficult to trace who really sent the mail.


4. HOW EMAIL SPAM IS BLOCKED


Because of the great aggravation caused by UBE, thousands of people have devised methods to reduce it, both for themselves and others. These proposed solutions cover a wide range of ideas, and generally fall into three broad categories





· Filtering


· Legal


· Economic





Another way to look at this is to ask whether an originator is allowed to send UBE. If they are, the recipient or the recipients host must filter; if not, then there must be some legal prohibition on sending UBE. The argument for requiring legal force is that it is necessary to counter the very strong economic incentive present for originators of UBE. That economic incentive can only be reduced by changing the economic basis for all Internet mail, as described below.


The distinction between legal solutions is, unfortunately, not clear-cut. Some of the specific solutions described in this report cross the categories; for instance, some of the proposed legal solutions rely on filtering as well. Still, these categories give a reasonable framework for comparing and analyzing the anti-UBE mechanisms.


4.1 FILTERING


Most of the work in trying to stop UBE has been in the area of filtering. Filtering proposals can be divided into two broad categories


· Heuristic filters (learning and guessing)


· Cooperative filters (definitive)


HEURISTIC FILTERS


The majority of existing efforts to filter incoming UBE presume that it is possible to detect such messages without the cooperation of the originator. Some commercial packages for doing filtering have thousands of rules. Unfortunately, originators of UBE are highly creative and are likely to develop sophisticated technical mechanisms to fool all but the most sophisticated filtering systems.





The heuristic approach fall into two categories


· Origin filtering


· Message filtering


Origin Based Heuristic Filtering


Origin filtering happens before a message has been fully received by the recipients host computer, and is based in attributes such as the domain name and IP address of the originator.


The rules used rely on originators to use the same or similar addresses each time they send UBE. Origin filtering prevents mail from UBE originators from being saved in the destination hosts message store, and can reduce the load on destination hosts by reducing the amount of interaction they have with UBE originators.


The four methods described here are


Ø Refusing IP connections from known UBE originators -


This technique, also know as black holing, is based on telling routers at the local site to not route IP packets from a list of addresses that correspond to UBE originators.


Ø Refusing TCP connections from known UBE originators in the SMTP server -


Modern SMTP servers can be configured to look up the IP address or domain name of a originator as it connects to the SMTP server; the domain name is determined by a reverse lookup of the IP address. If the originator is on a list of prohibited sites, the SMTP server can refuse to accept any SMTP commands.


Thus, the filtering is performed immediately after the TCP connection is opened, before any SMTP commands are exchanged.


Ø Refusing SMTP messages from known UBE originators at the MAIL FROM command -


Modern SMTP servers can be configured to check the domain name given by a sending SMTP server during the MAIL FROM command in SMTP. If the originator is on a list of prohibited sites, the SMTP server can refuse to receive a message. This filtering is performed immediately after the MAIL FROM command, before any message is transmitted.


Ø Refusing SMTP messages from originators whose domain name doesnt match their IP address -


Modern SMTP servers can be configured to perform a domain name search to find the IP address associated with the domain name, then check if that address match the IP address of the TCP connection. If the two IP addresses dont match, the SMTP server can refuse to receive a message. This filtering is performed immediately after the MAIL FROM command, before any message is transmitted.


Message Based Heuristic Filtering


Message filtering happens after a message is received. Attributes for message filtering can include the same as those for origin filtering, but can also include


things like known keywords, tip-off headers, and so on. Examples of tip-off headers include headers that indicate that the message was sent in bulk or in a way that is hiding its true origin. Some message filters also work by only allowing messages from previously-known senders to get through.


. The rules for filtering can include domain names and IP addresses, similar to the coarse filtering described earlier. The rules can also be based on whether the recipient has previously received mail from the sender and wants to continue to do so.


Specific filtering occurs in two places


· Message store (before the recipient has retrieved it) -


A receiving host can scan each message and filter out suspected UBE. It can also periodically scan the message store, for example when it has updated its list of rules about what might be UBE, to see if any of the received but unretrieved messages should be marked as UBE.


· Recipients mail client -


A mail client (such as one using POP or IMAP) can scan each message as it comes in from the message store and filter out suspected UBE. This happens as the recipient is receiving messages.


The main difference between these two is that filtering in the message store usually removes the message from the message store or labels it in a way that the mail client can recognize.


Implementations of specific filtering must decide what to do with messages that get caught by the filter. If the filter simply throws out the message, it runs the risk of losing non-UBE that simply looked like UBE, or throwing out UBE that the recipient actually wanted. Even if the filter doesnt throw out the UBE, but merely sets it aside for later reading by the recipient, misfiltered mail can easily get lost among the UBE that it appears in.


COOPERATIVE FILTERS


In addition to origin and message heuristic filtering for tip-offs that a message is UBE, it is possible to have collaboration between UBE originators and UBE recipients. Two entirely different schemes fall into this category


· Content labeling


· Recipient registration


With content labeling, filtering is done by the recipient or the recipients host; with recipient registration, the filtering is done by the originator.


For content labeling, messages can contain additional information supplied by the originator, such as the type of the content or an assurance of the originators identity. When the originator cooperates by assigning useful labels, these messages can then be


definitively filtered with full assurance that the filtering for those particular messages will be effective at preventing the UBE from getting to the recipient. However the recipient can also specify that they in fact desire labeled UBE.


Another proposal for reducing UBE, commonly called opt-out, requires that the user inform either individual senders or keepers of universal lists that they dont want to receive UBE. This becomes a type of filtering, where the UBE originator filters who they were going to send to against a local or outside list of potential recipients. This type of originator filtering only works for honest and/or conscientious UBE originators, of course. Dishonest UBE originators would simply pretend to honor lists and then send the UBE anyway; other UBE originators would not even pretend to honor the lists. Because different forms of filtering can cause different negative side-effects, each type of heuristic filtering is described in this report separately. The sections later in the report describe what the filtering choices are made on, how effective that type of filtering is for blocking honest and dishonest UBE, the type of coordination that is needed for effective


filtering across the Internet, the potential for information loss, and the impact of the filtering on recipients (which is, after all, the reason that anti-UBE tactics are being pursued.) Of course, the positive impact on recipients is not seeing unwanted UBE.


4. LEGAL


Many of todays UBE originators have shown little regard for honesty or normal business practices. Thus, many people think that the only way to prevent them from sending UBE, even if other anti- UBE mechanisms are employed, is through legal means.


For postal mail, direct marketing has relatively well-established practices, along with relatively long- standing regulation. However, UBE over the Internet is very new and is essentially unregulated. Of course, the Internet crosses many local, regional, and national boundaries, so any application of law to the Internet is sure to be problematic. This severely limits the ability to develop a coherent set of laws that can be applied to all (possible) source of UBE.


Legal controls are achieved through two different paths


· Passing regulatory laws


· Signing contracts


To date, neither of these avenues is significantly exploited, so that specific alternatives are almost entirely theoretical.


REGULATION


The nature of a law concerning UBE is to specify behaviors which are prohibited and provide for sanctions against violation of the proscription. Discussion of these kinds of controls focuses on two actors


· Origination control


· Relay control


Control by the originator simply says that certain kinds of UBE shall not be posted to the mail system, or that certain kinds of UBE shall not be posted to certain kinds of recipients. Control by the relay says that the operator of an email relay service (including final delivery to the recipient) shall reject all or some UBE. A major difficulty with the development of either type of law is development of precise and useful definitions of the proscribed UBE. A particular danger is that a definition will cut too wide a swath. That is, an effort to control one type of content could turn out to include other, very different types of content.


CONTRACTS


Legal solutions for UBE are not limited to passing new laws or enforcing current laws in a new territory. Some of the proposed UBE solutions involve contractual agreements between all senders of email and their Internet connections. By filtering for service providers who enforce anti-UBE agreements, a recipient can have more assurance that the mail that they receive will have less UBE, and that the UBE they do get will probably cost the sender a significant amount in penalties. Similarly, an association of mail relayers who have anti-UBE agreements with their senders may agree to mark email from that association so that a recipient would have a greater trust for that mail than for unmarked mail.


4. ECONOMIC


By its very nature, Internet mail costs little to send and little to receive unless the senders or recipients access charges are high and are sensitive to the duration of a session. Because of the low cost of sending, many people feel free to create email messages to known recipients; because of the low cost of receiving mail, most recipients freely accept all incoming messages, even though they will immediately throw away.


UBE senders rely on the low cost of sending large amounts of Internet mail. An often-suggested method for reducing UBE is to make it more expensive to send mail. A variety of methods for charging for outgoing mail have been suggested, including ones that allow recipients to return part of the sending fees. Some analysts have also pointed out that this kind of usage-based charges will make using the Internet more like other communications systems today.


This report does not look into these proposals in any depth because charging for sending Internet mail would cause such a fundamental change in the style of communicating, it would no longer be Internet mail. These proposed changes would require a massive financial infrastructure for very low-cost transactions, and every participant in the new system would have to allow tracking of all their mail in order to allow fair billing. Further, this type of system would eliminate the kinds of email that have attracted many people to the Internet in the first place, particularly open mailing lists and other kinds of mail-based discussions. These limitations are just a few reasons why the proposed fee-based sending has not garnered much interest from implementers.


Note that if sending UBE becomes illegal, it is likely that many senders of UBE would be willing to pay to send bulk email to recipients who were willing to accept payment. At that point, the mail is by definition no longer unsolicited, since acceptance of payment is a way of saying you want the mail. Payment methods and amounts would be based on market acceptance, and it is possible that todays noxious UBE would disappear and be replaced with commercial mail that is similar to typical bulk postal mail. Recipients who didnt want to receive any of this type of commercial mail could easily refuse all such mail, or could accept mail only from senders willing to pay a very high rate.


5. CONCLUSION


The most important thing you can do to combat Spam is not to buy anything from a spammer. If no one purchases their products, they have no incentive to continue spamming. Spam is rife on the Net. No matter what you do, it will be difficult to avoid spam altogether. To minimize your exposure to spam, avoid giving your email address out to unknown parties.


For example When posting to Usenet newsgroups, edit your header so that it doesn’t contain your E-mail address. Also notify the E-mail directories that you’d like to be taken off their lists.


Once you start receiving spam, it is fairly certain that the deluge will continue, although you can employ spam filters that will “clean up” your email. Unless you want to make hunting down spammers (those who spam) one of the areas of concentration in your life, you will just have to learn to live with the aggravation of spam. For the moment, just delete that spam.


Sending spammers email requesting that they cease spamming you will probably just incite them to send you even more spam messages. Never MailBomb spammers, this will just get you into some serious trouble. Vigilante action is definitely ill advised. Work on your defense strategy if you are truly angered by spam.





Please note that this sample paper on SPAMMING is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on SPAMMING, we are here to assist you. Your cheap research papers on SPAMMING will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Thursday, December 29, 2011

Rhetorical Analysis Nancy Mairs"Body In Trouble"

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Rhetorical Analysis


Nancy Mairs


Body In Trouble





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Nancy Mairs begins her essay by stating that in biblical times, physical and mental disorders


were considered to signify possesion by demons. She commences in such a way to draw her audience


and to keep them tuned in. It is evident that Mairs realized her audience.The audience, being disabled


persons, like herself, feminists, and even people who are interested in or have experience with


the difficulties of her disease.


The audience described here is the population of beings who will eventually read the essay.


This essay will naturally adduce an audience of intelect due to its use of figurative


language. Mairs uses this figurative language to explain the difficulties of her disability. This language


reflects her effort to reach the audience. Mairs techniques for conveying her ethos and engaging


readers emotions assist with her explanatory project.





The author Nancy Mairs establishes her credibility well. She proves knowlegeability of


disabled persons and feminists by being one which concludes her to have experience. She is


widely acclaimed for her autobiographical essays about her struggles with disabilities. This essay,


Body In Trouble characteristically confronts readers with blunt language that asserts feminist


values. She also uses this language to display herself as a strong human being regardless of her


situation. There are several aspects of he personality -as she conveys it here- that the audience


can respond to positively. For example, Mairs says that she cannot use sharp objects because


of her disability but uses metaphor to compare the last sharp object that she has as being her tounge.


She asks the audience what a cripple like her is good for. She continues on to say that her keyboard


is only waist high and that she can still use it to write books. This a special talent she has and that not


everyone can do but that she can do very well.


In this essay, Mairs is seeking to explain her difficulties with dealing with a disablility, that is


depression, agoraphobia, and multiple sclerosis to which she has lost the use of her arms and legs.


Her primary purpose in writing this essay is to get her readers to understand her disability and to


sympathize with her and others like her. Mairs explains this through the use of anecdote, division


into parts, analogy, reasoning, narrative, and example. She speaks of the bind women have


found themselves in which gives them relatively little power. She refers to the Malleus


Maleficarum and notes the saying, All witchcraft comes from carnal Lust which is in


Women insatiable. Through the use of reasoning with her audience she displays the difficulties


of being a woman , with all the stereotypes that men have given us. This is then used to explain that


to be a crippled woman is twice as hard. Another example of her appeal to reason is her attempt to


explain how people look at her. She tells us that she is a Catholic Worker, someone who works at


the catholic church. Mairs then asks the question, How can a woman identify herself as a Catholic


Worker if she cant even cut up carrots for the soup or ladle it out for the hungry people queued up


outside the kitchen door? This question is used to help the audience understand how society seems


to rob someone who lacks physical capacity of moral efficacy.





Mairs presents herself as a woman who talks about her experience being in a wheelchair.


She gives an example of a specific experience when she went with her husband to a large resort


to see the Dalai Lama. When the workshop participants were let into a narrow hallway she saw


that nowone even realized she was there. She felt invisible having to roll to one side and hug


a wall. This is ironic beacuse all these people, fourteen hundred of them were there to celebrate


the beauty and sacredness of life but not one of them seemed to think that any life was going


on below the level of his or her own gaze. This paragraph effectively engages the targeted audience


through emotional appeal. It has made them think about their own life therefore triggering a


connection between themselves and the writer which keeps them reading. Other examples of the


emotional appeal she provides is the list of dead metaphors. These images convey an intense


emotional power because they equate physical ability with positive moral


equalities. Someone who is strong or in good physical condition can be considered a better


person in these reasonings although often this is not true at all. She also explains that wicked witches


are always described as bent and misshapen and since she is bent and misshapen she is put in


the same category as a witch. Not only ugly but wicked. There are several values that are inherent


when she chooses to use the metaphor childhood and imprisonment for disability. This


extensive use of figurative language is used to help deepen ones understanding of the difficulty


of being disabled.





Mairs essay is both intensely personal and conceptually abstract. She has offered a persuasive


argument .Body In Trouble has affected my thinking as well as many others. She wants people to


accept that all people are different and to have respect for and symphathize with the unfortunate.





In the end, -------


her audience sees eye to eye rather than eye to naval.


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Matilda

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The book Matilda is about a girl who is treated badly. She finds out that she can do magic and she usually uses it when she is mad, but occasionally if someone needs it, she uses it to help them. With the magic she taught herself she drives her parents crazy! In school she is a genius and her parents don’t care. She has a principle, Miss Trunchbull, who hates kids. She treats them like they are nothing. On the other hand, she has a teacher, Miss Honey, who is the nicest person Matilda ever met. She spent most of her time with her. I would say this book is very exciting, adventurous, and depressing.


Matilda is exciting because throughout the whole book, she keeps you going with all of her adventures. You always think she is going to get caught, but then she doesn’t. She is a very sneaky girl. Matilda is very curious about things having to do with Miss Honey. She takes many risks for her and loves her a lot.


It is adventurous because of all of the adventures that she goes on. On one of them, she goes to Miss Trunchbull’s house to get some of Miss Honey’s old belongings. She almost gets caught, but she sticks it out. She even gets to play around with Miss Trunchbull’s mind a little. She messes with all of the clocks in her house, makes an old picture of Miss Honey’s dad come flying down the stairs at her, and she moves her furniture around a little.


It is depressing because of her living style. She gets mistreated by her family. Matilda does all of the chores and waits on her family hand and foot. They make her get them drinks, fix their meals and she barely ever gets to have fun.


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I recommend Matilda to just about anybody. It is a very fun book to read, and it keeps you very entertained. Matilda is a classic that is great for family reading. If you like books that are exciting, adventurous, and depressing, then you would like Matilda.





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Wednesday, December 28, 2011

work ethics

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You need to have a positive attitude towards work or will show in your performance. Also if you have a bad attitude it seems to rub off onto the other employee’s. I believe that work ethic is taught by your parents and can be learned by the example that a parent gives. A child should be taught the value of work and the responsibility that goes along with it and let them see this exemplified in their parents behaviors. The parent must walk the talk in order for the child to be truly motivated to honor this.


An employee’s most valuable commodity is its reputation and integrity. No matter at work or at home you always need to follow through with what you have committed to do. You will earn a good reputation for being a “stand up person” and someone that can be counted on. Be respectful to other people and try to give them the same courtesy you would like given. Treat conflict as a challenge, offer help where its needed, be flexible and be willing to accept new challenges with a smile.


Etiquette is one of the most important skills any person can posses, no matter if youre a student, a business person or anyone else. The way you handle yourself in a business and social environment can reveal a lot about you and your position within an organization. From meetings with the boss to meetings with clients and customers, knowing the right things to do and say can make a tremendous difference in the outcome of things. Tardiness show lack of responsibility and caring. When you tell your employer that you will be there at a certain time they count on you being there. I think that being on time everyday is part of your work ethic and I think it reflects on your reputation and how committed you are. This also applies with your family and social life. It is never fun to sit and wait for someone to show up ½ hour late when you have made plans.


Being a conscientious worker shows what kind of person you are. If you take time to do your job and do it correctly the first time it shows that you put thought into it and that you care. In my work history I have had the experience of working with both people who are self-motivated and conscientious and those that need direction. Those individuals do not take near as much supervisory energy as those who need to be told what every step they need to take.


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Loyalty is also a key item in your work ethic. If your employer does not feel that you are loyal and cannot be trusted they will not confide in you. You may also not be given as much responsibility or larger projects than another that is trusted.


I think it is necessary to get a group of diverse people on a working team. It brings new ideas, beliefs and caricature into tasks at hand. I think that everyone should be treated equal and not discriminated due to his or her race, sex or religion. I think that they should be judge on their experience and qualifications. I also think the work place should be free from favoritism and nepotism.


Sexual harassment is unacceptable anytime, not just at work. People need to respect others man and woman. It is important to find out what your rights are and what procedures are in place to help you. You need to be clear and speak up saying “NO” (with out a smile) will clearly state that you don’t like the behavior that’s going on. Find out what your employers policy on sexual harassment is take appropriate actions. Document the actions that take place and go to your immediate supervisor. If this does not help got to their boss and let them know what has happened and that no actions have been taken. If this does not help, file a complaint with your state agency. Write the person a letter stating what is offending you but be polite and to the point in your letter.





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Amanda Persoal Goals

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Amanda’s Personal Goals


Adults are seeking to continue their education for one reason or another. They may want to obtain a degree, change careers, or challenge themselves. However there is one student attending the University of Phoenix, who has quite a few goals to accomplish. Amanda Marvin has not been is school for over 7years. Just remembering the basics is going to be difficult for her.


Amanda will have to make sacrifices and uneasy decisions to accomplish her goals. Spending less quality time with her daughter Victoria, or getting a bachelors degree at The University of Phoenix, is a difficult choice. They are both of equal importance. However, only one will help both of them succeed in a more secure life style.


Victoria will be starting school soon. Now that Amanda is back in school she will be more of an asset to Victoria throughout her school years. Showing her that a good education is essential to a better way of life. Helping Victoria learn her study skills encourages her to become a better student. Thus Victoria will have a mentor.


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Teamwork is a vital skill Amanda needs to improve upon. This is important at home and in a professional environment. This is a skill she can teach Victoria at a young age. Victoria will be able to use this in her everyday activities. More and more they are rediscovering the importance of teamwork in the world of employment. Amanda applies teamwork skills in her career now. Amanda wants to strengthen these skills to be more affective and productive in her professional


career. Attending The University of Phoenix will help Amanda develop the skills needed to succeed in today’s work force.


Oral and written communication will affect Amanda’s home life and career everyday. These skills are necessary to help Amanda grow as an individual. By growing in these areas, it will allow Amanda to communicate with Victoria on a more personal level. Written communication is going to be the biggest obstacle for her to accomplish. Language is not one of her strengths. With diligence and hard work Amanda plans to turn these areas into strengths. This will open the door for Amanda to effectively communicate in a variety of situations, where she once was not able to. Amanda will be more valuable to Victoria and her employer.


Another objective of Amanda’s while attending the University of Phoenix will be to advance her proficiency with technology and computer software. Amanda has chosen the field of information technology to study at the University of Phoenix. It is very critical that she increases her knowledge of technology and computer software. Learning these skills will help her in the curriculum at the University of Phoenix. Advancing in these areas will make Amanda a valuable asset to co-workers and her employer. Victoria will be able to learn computer skills from Amanda at an early age. This will benefit Victoria in her education and professional career, in the years to come.


A change in career financially would be the best thing that could happen to Amanda. She will be able to provide a better living environment for Victoria and herself. Victoria will have the opportunity to go to a school with a better


curriculum. Being more financially secure would mean a more stress free life for Amanda. She will have a great opportunity to further her education, and go for her master’s degree.


Amanda has a lot of hard work to accomplish these goals of hers. When she does her self esteem will go up. She will have gained a great morale and a new positive out look on life. All Amanda wants, “is to be able to provide a better way of life for Victoria, who is everything in the world to her.” All of Amanda’s goals include her daughter; she is her primary motivation in life. The main reason Amanda has chosen to continue her education is for her daughter. Thanks to the University of Phoenix her goals now can be accomplished.





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Tuesday, December 27, 2011

andrew carnegie

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The life Andrew Carnegie led affects many of us in this country in one way or another. Andrew began his life as a poor Scottish immigrant, his mother working as a seamstress among other things and his father a weaver. In 1848 the Carnegie family left Dunfermline and got on a boat headed to the United States of America. Carnegie started out his working career as a bobbin boy. Many times with luck, but with a lot of hard work earned himself promotions and found higher paying jobs, eventually owning his own mill with well over 1,000 employees. He became one of the richest men in the world, eventually giving all his money away to benefit the lives of all those after him. Believing it was better to help the masses than to just die with lots of money in his bank account and leaving it to his family. He gave his money to start libraries, Universities and funds to keep educational programs going. Carnegie believed if he gave his money to places like this, his money would help others for generations to come. Carnegie, along w/ others helped redefine the expectations of other entrepreneurs & provided models for their activities.


Andrew Carnegie did not attend school until he was eight years of age. His parents told him he did not have to attend school until he felt he wanted to. It finally took the persuading of a local principal to get Andrew into school. At the point the Carnegies came to the US Andrew only had about 5 years of schooling, and he still overcame this to do extremely well at all the jobs he would have. Because of the many power looms in the cotton industry, Andrew’s father was pretty much driven to “unemployment”. Because of this Andrew’s mom would need to help out financially. Andrew’s mom decided to sell food and sew shoes during evenings to support the family. When a power weaving company opened up in their hometown, Magaret Carnegie decided it was time for the family to move to the United States. Borrowing money from a family friend the Carnegies took a boat to the US to New York City in 1848. After arriving in the US, the Carnegies had to manage their way by several boats to the city of Allegheny, PA, now knows as Pittsburgh.


Carnegies had to go to work once in the US in order to help support the family. His first job was that of a bobbin boy in a textile mill, owned by another Scotland native. His starting salary was $1.0 per week. On top of working long days in the mill, he decided to also attend night school, to work on his education. Carnegie eventually landed a job as a Messenger working for the O’Reilly Telegraph Company. On his own time he decided he would learn telegraphy, in hopes of eventually moving up in the company. . Carnegie was one of only a few people in the entire Country that knew how to read code by the sounds only, not needed the dots on the paper. This led to another promotion within the company. On a morning that the trains were getting all tangled up, because his boss arrived late that day, Carnegie took the initiative and decided to give out the orders as if they were coming from the boss. He got everything under control, which impressed his boss.


Andrew’s first investment came when he was only 16 years old. He invested $600 in Adams Express stock, earning a monthly dividend of 1%. Seeing the $10 come in without having to do one second of work, Andrew liked the idea of earning a living through investments. Carnegie’s boss from the telegraph company, Colonel Scott, was promoted to a Superintendent’s job with the Pennsylvania Railroad, taking Andrew with him. Moving up in the ladder, Colonel Scott, took Andrew with him on every promotion he received. Carnegie earned Superintendent of the Pittsburgh division by the young age of 4.


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Carnegies first major investment was that into the Sleeping car inventor, T.T. Woodruff. Carnegie actually set up a meeting with Woodruff and Scott, whom eventually created a company, giving Carnegie an interest in this company. When his first payment came due Andrew didn’t have the money. Wisely he borrowed it from a banker, paying him back at $15 per month. This move earned Carnegie $00,000 in profits from the Sleeping car business. Andrew’s next investment was in the development of an oil field, while on a vacation in Europe the company struck oil, earning Carnegie $50,000.


Carnegie on a trip to England saw the success being obtained with the Bessemer process, and decided to bring this idea to the United States. After bringing this process over, Carnegie became part owner in a few different steel companies, eventually combining them to form the Carnegie Steel Corporation. Carnegie always invested in the most current and top of the line inventions to ensure he could produce the most steel in the least amount of time. Since he was able to manufacture so much of the product, he was able to drastically undersell the competition in order to obtain their customers. Knowing this would lead to a larger quantity of sales, Carnegie took the initial lower profits only to gain huge when he owned nearly all of the steel production in the company.


Andrew’s visions of the future of steel is what made him the millionaire he became. Andrew seemed to know that the railroads were all going to switch to steel rails. With Carnegie steel making these available at such cheap rates it was a wise investment for the railroad companies and in turn this made Carnegie’s company keep growing and growing. The prices of steel per ton more than 50% in about a decade and Carnegies production rose 0 times. This led to huge profits by the company, and with Andrews insistence that the company put it’s profits back into making efficient products the company strived. Carnegie began buying out many other steel companies and also turning them into highly efficient operations. Carnegie pretty much had a huge monopoly going and it was making him rich beyond belief.


One of the companies that Carnegie bought was the Homestead Works, a very efficient steel company but had major labor problems, mainly due to the fact that it was a union mill. This part of the company eventually led to the Homestead Strike of 18. Carnegie did not believe in Unions, so when the strike came he decided the way to best deal with it was to shut the plant down and wait out the workers. Knowing the workers were not being paid very well he assumed they’d have to leave the union and come back to work. The strike led to a lot of violence and Carnegie left the country hoping his partners would resolve everything for him.


Carnegie had no desire to be in business any longer and really wanted to retire from the Steel industry. He eventually had enough of the business and wrote a handwritten sales offer to J.P. Morgan of $480,000,000. Morgan accepted and formed U.S. Steel in March of 101. This left Carnegie able to concentrate more on the writing he always wanted to do and basically spent much of the rest of his life giving his money away. It is widely thought that Carnegie gave away as much as $50,000,000 to many different causes. Below are some of the largest “donations” he made.


Library buildings $4,065,6.7


Other buildings 4,67,186.


Endowment ,77,588.


Other purposes 1,647,55.00


0,6,010.11


Church organs (7,68) 6,48,0.00


Carnegie Corporation of New York 15,000,000.00


Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (including $1,000,000 to


Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association) ,50,000.000


Carnegie Institute (including $1,51,4.65 to Carnegie Institute of Technology) 6,71,80.67


Carnegie Institution of Washington ,00,000.00


Carnegie Hero Funds 10,540,000.00


Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 10,000,000.00


Scottish Universities Trust 10,000,000.00


United Kingdom Trust 10,000,000.00


Sources


The Carnegie Nobody Knows by George Swetnam & Helene Smith


Making American by Berkin, Miller, Cherny, Gormly


http//voteview.uh.edu/


http//www.nytimes.com


http//www.andrewcarnegie.cc/


http//www.usdreams.com/





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Pearl Harbor

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Pearl Harbor


By Andrew Geise


For my movie review I decided to watch the movie Pearl Harbor. This movie combines fictional characters with historical characters to make a war movie with a love story for a twist. In the scenes that involved war reenactments, the movie was depicted accurately. The movie producers took great care in making sure that all the battle scenes were as true to life as possible, to try to make the audience feel as if they were right within the depths of the pacific fleet and under attack by Japan.


There were several characters that appeared within the movie, some real and some fictional. Characters Rafe McCauley (played by Ben Afflek), Danny Walker (played by Josh Harnett), and Evelyn Johnson (played by Kate Beckinsale) were all fictional characters. Even though none of them ever existed, they all help the movie gain a plot that kept moviegoers watching for the two and a half hour long film. They played a very important role within the movie by creating a love triangle set within a raging war. There were however several real historical characters that appeared within the movies action. Doris “Doire” Miller (played by Cuba Gooding Jr.) was the first African American to receive the naval cross. Captain Dolittle (played by Alec Baldwin) was a real army captain within the United States Army in World War II that helped take revenge on Japan with the Dolittle raid that was a real attack on Japan. Japanese general Yamaoto, who really did come up with the attack on Pearl Harbor and it starting World War II was also depicted in this movie. President Roosevelt, (played by Jon Voight) who did a great job of showing the true spirit of how our president really felt about taking action against Japan to give revenge for the thousands of fallen men and women who died in the attack on Pearl Harbor.


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The Movies depiction of the attack on Pearl Harbor was true to the actual events. The depiction of the United States retaliation on Japan was accurate in showing the Dolittle raid. Not only does this movie depict military events well, but also does a wonderful job of making the movie within its era of 140’s believable. The women wore long skirts and little makeup. The people drove old classic cars, for example the “woody”, and homes were not as flashy and showy as the ones today. The naval technologies were just starting to grow, so ships and planes just had the basics needed for defense and navigation.


I liked this movie, but I wish it had been more war footage, facts, and less love story. One critic labeled this movie as “Thirty minutes history and two and a half hours of a sappy love triangle”. This love story was the basic story of when a guy meets a girl and they fall for each other, then for some reason the guy has to leave. The girl tries to move on with life and keep him as her only love when another guy comes along, but just when you think there going to be together the first guy shows up out of nowhere. This love triangle made the movie both boring and interesting for me. I’m not sure if that is possible, but that is how I felt when I got through watching it. I liked this movie and I hope that others will like it too.








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