Sunday, October 2, 2011

Causes of WWI

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Causes of WWI


I. Imperialism


A. Far East


1. India


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. China


-England 1st with imperialistic government


-Set in China and India


-English get Opium out of India and trade Opium to China for tea


-China wants England to stop trade with them


-England does not want to


-Starts Opium War


-1st 18-184 English defeat China


-Treaty of Nanking brings to end; Treaty indicates 10 ports open to England called treaty ports


-Hong Kong is most famous of Treaty Ports, other European countries take sections of land


-Sphere of Influence- ports of China where European countries take section of land


-188- US enters in called “Open Door Policy”


-US have access to any part of China we wanted


-Had modern day navy called “Great White Fleet”


-100- Chinese make rebellion �Boxer Rebellion


-Chinese loose and loose more land


-European and US called for Extraterritoriality this means if a foreign commits a crime in China, tried court made of own countrymen


-Occupation and exploration of China continues till 10’s when Great Depression hits


-Righteous, Harmonious Fist- another name for boxer rebellion


-US and Europe leaves allows Japan to exploit China, ultimately lead to WWII


B. Africa


-Called Dark Continent, only value to European people was slave trade began in 1600’s


-1700’s slave trade ended


-1840’s Christian Medical Missionary- Dr. Robert Livingston- will not be heard from for next 0 years in Africa


-1870’s newspaper writer H.M. Stanley go to Africa to look for Livingston, write articles on Africa for next years, articles alert the European for economic potential of Africa, lead to exploitation of Africa by leading industrialized countries in Europe France, England, and Germany.


-France builds Suez Canal


-England develop East &


-Germany South Africa


-1880 Cecil Rhoades- “Cape to Cairo Plan”- a plan for railroad from Cape of Africa to Cairo to then put ships in Suez Canal and ship it


a) Suez Canal- had to get control of Suez canal for plan to work had to be a peaceful takeover (financial)


Egypt needed money for expensive lifestyle


England does and puts has to put up their half of Suez canal as collateral


Egypt cannot pay back so England takes their half


At the time Panama Canal is being built by Credit Molbier, company owned right to Suez Canal, so England lends them the money to build it and Suez Canal as collateral, England stops using Suez Canal so company doesn’t get any money from Suez canal so they go bankrupt and have to give up their half of Suez Canal


b) Eastern Section (southern)


England gets involved in series of war Boer War- fights Dutch and Germans for control of Boer States


180-101Wars


101-have states in Southern part of Africa


England joins Russia and France for WWI to take over German Eastern Africa


II. Racism


-A concept of criticizing another to build up yourself because of own inadequacies


-Countries compare race to that of others


- major Groups


a) Pan-Germanic- attempts to unify all European people of German people led by Germany


-Idea was to protect form exploitation of others


b) Pan-Slavism- attempted to unify all Slavic people under 1 society led by Russia


-Protect exploitation of Slavs by Germany


-French Revenge


-To unify France and to repay Germany for Franco Prussian war


III.


a) Triple Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey


b) Triple Entante France, Russia, England


IV.


-Balkan Crisis


-Since 145 Balkan Area under Turks


-Divided into several racial and religious groups constantly at war


-Greeks- Greek Orthodox, Slavs- Russian Orthodox, Turks, Muslim, Bosnians-German Catholic


-100 Turkey unable to maintain control, started to give some areas independence


Serbia- has 1 major problem


- land lock; no seaport


-depend on neighbor for economic expansion


-110 Serbia attempts to take Bosnia


-Turkey gave Bosnians independences


-Bosnia asks Austria-Hungary for protection


-Serbia denies seaport


-Serbia asks Russia for help


-In 11 sittings on powder keg


-114 Arch Duke Francis Ferdinand is assassinated by a member of Terrorist Group called Black Hand


Great War


-187-Germany and Austria-Hungary join in defensive military alliance


-1881- Italy who had plans to move in North Africa, Tunisia but stopped by France


-188- Italy joins Germany and Austria-Hungary and form triple alliance


-There is still dislike between Austria and Italians


-after Bismarck, Germany didn’t realign with Russia and France goes to Russia with trade


-184- Russia and France form Dual Alliance


-England Empire threatened by Germany called Fashoda Affair


-104-Entente Cordial-settle the Fashoda Affair


-France gets free hand in Morocco


-England gets Sudan


-107 Britain and Russia settle differences over spears of influences in China and Persia


-107- Triple Entente is completed


-Both rival alliances completed


-These alliances divided Europe into camps


-Almost equal in power, Peace Activists like this say because equal so there is peace


-114- war begins when Germany attacks France


-Most of WWI fought in France and Belgium


-France saved because German army had to split because Russia attacked in east


-Germans used Schifflen Plan- plan developed in which German sweep in waves so they would encircle France


- didn’t work because Russians attacked in east


-Both sides develop trench warfare


-114-11 Line didn’t move became war of attrition- when soldier is killed is someone to take place


Eastern Front


-Germans defeat Russians easily


-114-117 Russian’s beat badly


-1/10 Russia captured


-117-Communist Revolution led by Vladimir Lenin, throws over Nicholas II


-When Russians have Revolution withdraw from war and sign Treaty of Brest-Litovsk


-Germany keeps all land that captured


-117-US enters the war forces and supplies make difference to defeat Germans


-11- Peace of Paris ends war, contains 5 separate treaties with


Germany-Treaty of Versailles


Turkey


Austria each treaty is


Hungary named after a


Bulgaria suburb of Paris


-Germany given war-guilt clause says Germany its all your fault and holds Germany responsible


-Germany gave Austria a Blank Check


-Negotiate Peace of Paris is known as “Big 4”


-Clemenseau- France -80% of what he proposed is done, wants to economically, militarily, and politically destroy Germany


-Now Germany must take on a democracy


-Sever punishment limitations on their military force, force to pay to rebuild Belgium and France


-Give back Alsace and Lorraine


-All land took from Russia give back


-From land Poland be recreated


-Baltic States On Baltic Sea created these, because Russia pulled out, of kept on fighting wouldn’t have lost this land, Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia


-France wanted Poland to be recreated as a buffer zone from Communist Russia


-Land from Germany taken to create Czechoslovakia (land of northern Slavs)


-Orlando-Italy


-115 Treaty of London- Italy jumps ship again, wants land once controlled by Austrians


-George- England


-Wants land in Africa to complete “Cape to Cairo Plan” where Germans had land


-Wilson-America


-Presents 14 points program


1) Restructure of Europe to avoid racial problems


) An arms limitations program


) Peace keeping organization called League of Nation


-US doesn’t join because US begins Isolationism- don’t involve oneself in problems of other nations


-League of Nations fail


-Yugoslavia is created, land formed from Austria and Hungary (Land of Southern Slavs”)


-Land taken from Turkey from Middle East creates 5 independent countries





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