Tuesday, September 20, 2011

C&D

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SUMMERY AND CROSS-REFERENCING


REASONS WHY SOME DEVIANT ACTS ARE CRIMINAL


Not all deviant acts are considered to be criminal acts, but some are. Deviancy is defined by the people in the society, commonly the dominant culture. The dominant culture meaning the culture that is more populated in a society. When members of the subculture do something that they consider to be normal the members of the dominant culture might not. (Pg.4)


When a deviant act is considered to be to the excessive to the majority of the dominant culture they the population can be of the same opinion and have a law implemented against it.(Pg.4)


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When a pressure group tries to ban a act for moral reasons and succeeds can make an act considered to be deviant.(Pg.4)


PATTERNS OF CRIME


The criminal acts that are most common are theft and burglary.


5% of reported crimes are assault. 1% is sexual offences, note that this is a percentage on the crimes reported and not of actual crimes, most women that are sexually assaulted do not report it.(Pg.5)


The majority of criminals are of the male sex, with the most likely age between 16 and 1, females 1 to 15.(Pg.5)


SOCIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF CRIME AND DELINQUENCY


There five possible explanations for crime, the sub-cultural approach, anomy, the Marxist approach, left realism, and control theory.(Pg.6)


The sub-cultural approach; this approach claims that people who commit crimes share similar norms and values, that differ from those of the society. This has to do with their upbringing, e.g. children who are raised in a family where someone is being abused, not necessarily themselves.(Pg.6)


Anomie; this approach comes from Mr. Robert Merton, and he argues that people in society want to have financial success and people who are unemployed may have things hard, and society will label them as poor low life people so the resort to crime.(Pg.6)


The Marxist approach states; that people resort to crime because of there society they live in. this is a long-established theory.(Pg.6)


Left realism; formally known as left wing states that young people are influenced by other people who have high income and expensive goods such as expensive cars big houses etc, and strive to have the same therefore resorting to crime.(Pg.7)


Control theory this questions why people follow rules in the first place and claims that people are linked to society by four bonds


attachment, which is the extent to which people care about others wishes and opinions. Which means how much people acknowledge other people’s norms and values and respect them.(Pg.7)


commitment, which is the amount of personal investment that people put into their life in terms of education, hard work, career moves etc. This means that how much people want and how hard they work for knowledge and what they want. (e.g. if you want a car but don’t have enough money to buy it. Will you work hard for it? or will you steal it?(Pg.7)


involvement, this concerns a high level of activities, thus a busy person with a wide range of interests and activities may be too busy to engage in deviant activities. This means that people that are busy physically wont even think of doing anything deviant a criminal. (Pg.7)


belief, this concerns the intensity or degree of belief of someone in the rules of society. This means that the extent of the respect of the law that people have.(Pg.7)


LABELING


The general name that a group of people carries is considered to their label. A label is an over simplified prejudgment of a group or a person people who make these labels are known as stereotypes. Most of the time when people are labeled the whole society refers to them by that name, this can have an affect on their lives also the lives of the people who call them that.(Pg.8)


People tend to treat people that are labeled differently depending on the name they carry. In some cases the labeled people may get fed-up with the name calling and then the they can change behavior.(Pg.8)


For example a man that goes to church and is said to be seen kissing another man on the street, even though it was not him. This is a rumor that circulates by gossip. When he goes to church the next day nobody will want to greet him and he would wonder why. At the end of the day everybody in the church will find out. The next Sunday when he goes back to church people will shun him and he would get angry and aggressively ask why everyone is acting like that, when they tell him why he would deny it, but they would not believe him, showing the power of labeling.


He would then stop going to church and have free time on his hands to be prone to crime and can also influence the rest of his own life and the life of his family. event the statement made was not thru people still believed it and not him even though they new him and never before thought he was homosexual. That also shows you that labels that people carry influences the way in which the rest of society judge them. This man was a church going man, has a wife and kids no one expected him to be homosexual but after the label was made they taught so.(Pg.8)


Labeling and deviancy amplification


Deviant amplification refers to when people are labeled as deviant and the society hears about it through means of mass media such as television, newspapers, radio and most importantly the police.(Pg.)


Mass media


If the media publishes something about people, and label them everyone in society will know and it will even be more serious, because it is not through circulation of gossip it is coming from a source that they rely on for there news on what is going on. The media also tends to blow things out of proportion, they might carry it a little overboard to make the story a little more interesting.(Pg.)


People who are not even effected are have never even seen those people that are being labeled would also label them as deviant. They use the media as a artist who draws an image in their mind, and the vision that they make of those people are limited to the information they get from the media.(Pg.)


The people who are labeled might not even be in the same country as the others but will still be labeled, and will be rejected by the general public.(Pg.)


The police


The police are the people the society rely on to protect them from crime and deviancy.


So if the police say some the they society will believe them, even though the police are human and share the same thoughts as us, but they are the ones that are actually out there on the field dealing with the criminals. But they are often prejudge mental.(Pg.)


Police are influenced by other police, if one officer encounters problems with one group of people but had act in an unorthodox way the other officers would be more cautious around them, it is to protect themselves but they over due it cause not everyone is the same. The people who the regularly check, search and question will grow a hatred for them and maybe even find what the do as unjust, and react aggressively to them.(Pg.)


For example people that come from a big country that has two separate parts “good” and “bad”, the police encounters problems with the “bad” people reputedly those people will be labeled by the police and when the police labels something so does the newspapers and then society will pick up the trend and also label them as deviant, but the people from the good side that does not have anything to do with the others are also labeled as deviant, people who are honest and hard working.(Pg.)


GENDER AND CRIME





Men are far more prone to be criminals as we already know. But why do women commit crime.(Pg.11)


1. differential socialization


. social control


. lack of opportunity


differential socialization


this is the teaching of the parents when the children are raised. Women are considered not to be aggressive.(Pg.11)


Social control


Women tend to stay away from the type of places that crime are likely to take place.(Pg.11)


Male monopoly of violence


Women are strongly discouraged from violence, whereas the potential for its use remain an element of masculinity.(Pg.11)


Reputation


Women tend to take care of the way they act in public not to be labeled, so they conduct them selves in a sensible manner.(Pg.11)


Lack of opportunity


Women are confined from crime because of the way they are socially brought up to be more sophisticated then men.(Pg.11)


UNDERSTANDING CRIMINAL STATISTICS


not all crime that is committed are reported so crime statistics are not completely right but it is good to have them to know who much crime is happening and what patterns are used in criminal acts.(Pg.1)


Not all criminal act that are committed are reported by victims. For example if a woman is being abused in a marriage she might not want to report abuse because she wont want everybody to know, or she is frightened what would happen if she reports it.(Pg.1)


Not all crimes are reported by police, these are usually “petty crime” such as theft or if people always are reporting crime the police might not even go to the crime scene.(Pg.1)


· Difference between deviant and illegal acts.


Deviant acts can be defined as behaviour that is sharply different from the norm or the accepted standard, while illegal acts are acts that a carried out that break the law set by government. In some cases deviant acts can differ from legal and illegal.


· Are deviant acts always considered the same in every society?


The consideration of deviant act differ depending on the society. This can also depend on the race, religion, etc. e.g. the recreational use of marijuana is considered to be normal in the Netherlands but in other countries that would be considered deviant even illegal.


· Do females commit the same amount of crime as males?


No. Males are by far more probable to commit illegal acts than females the ratio is 5 to 1. The reason for this could be the way men are brought up, to be the dominant sex. To have more respect the would be more dangerous in some cases.


· What does the term labelling mean?


When people commit crimes they would obtain a label from society. the label given to them is similar to how you and I would label a book are a movie be genre. If someone steals something they would be called a thief, someone who uses drugs will be called a drug addicts.


· What are “moral panics”?


According to Goode & Ben-Yehuda (14) A moral panic is characterised by the feeling, held by a substantial number of the members of a given society, that evil-doers pose a threat to the society and to the moral order as a consequence of their behaviour and, therefore, something should be done about them and their behaviour.(p.1)


· Why do the official statistics of crime need to be treated cautiously?


This is to ensure that the proper authority deals with all crime instead of focusing on certain crimes.


The British Crime Survey


The British Crime Survey also known as the BCS is a survey that is conducted to measure levels of crime. The survey started in 18, and continued in 184, 188, 1, 14, 16, 18 and 000. and is conducted by Home Office, since they conducted nine surveys.


The main purpose of the BCS is to reduce crime. the surveys are lists of questions regarding crime that is committed in each neighborhood that it is conducted in, after all have been conducted, they are put together to make one survey of all England and Wales.


The surveys that are conducted are filled out by the general public, and are made unanimous. The people who participate in the survey usually is or knows some one who has been a victim of a criminal act.


The first survey that was carried out in 18 consisted of 000 participants now it has grown to over 40,000. people who want to part take in the BCS receive a computer diskette containing the questions, when the participant sends back the BCS to be further evaluated.


After evaluating the surveys a comparison the crime responses made by the police is made, and every time the BCS shows that there is more crime committed than reported.


RESULTS FROM THE 001 BRITISH CRIME SURVEY





First results from the 001 BCS are now available. These are based on a sub sample of just under ,000 respondents, mostly interviewed in the first quarter of 001. The main results are that





· Between 1 and 000 burglary fell by 17%;


· The number of thefts of and from vehicles, including attempts, was down by 11%;


· Between 1 and 000 violence fell by 1%,


· The proportion of people who were victims of some type of crime once or more during 000 fell from 0% to 7%, the lowest overall victimisation rate ever recorded in the BCS.


The survey shows that people continued to overestimate the problem of crime, despite the overall fall in crime. Close to a quarter of respondents, down from a third in 000, believed the national crime rate had increased a lot between 18 and 000 - a perception at odds with both the BCS and the offences recorded by the police.


The WODC


BCS is a crime survey is a crime evaluation of the crime in Britain, the equivalent to the BSC in the Netherlands is Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum in English Search and Documentation Centre the abriviation is WODC.


This is the organisational structure of the WODC.





The director of the WODC controls and give orders in conducting the survey He bears final responsibility for all WODC publications and is overall manager of the centre. Quoted from the WODC website.


The management support unit controls the financial status of the WODC organisation.


The controller is in charge of the planning and control cycle and the composition of the secretariat for the weekly staff meetings. And informs the director of the operations of the organisation.


The research units have three main responsibilities


1 conducts research in the following justice policy areas Crime Prevention, Youth, Sanctions and Immigration.


focusses on Legislation, Legal Procedure and Legal Professions.


is concerned with Crime, Criminal Investigation and Prosecution.


External Research Unit (EWB) is responsible for all phases of the outsourcing process.


Statistical Data and Policy Analysis provide information for to customers such as ministries, the police, the national Public Prosecution Office.


Documentary Information Unit has been collecting national and international literature on crime and delinquency issues and making these materials available to a broader audience.


The centre aims to make a professional contribution to development and evaluation of justice policy set by the Netherlands Ministry of Justice.(all information found on the WODC website.)


Information for on the Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC), at the department of justice.





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