Sunday, July 31, 2011

This paper is a critical essay on the The New York Times Magazine article: The End Of Middle-Class America (and the Triumph of the Plutocrats) by Paul Krugman

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This paper is a critical essay on the The New York Times Magazine article The End Of Middle-Class America (and the Triumph of the Plutocrats) by Paul Krugman. I will be using the concepts that we have learned in class to analysis this article. The New York Times article looks at the fall of the Middle Class in the United States since the 10s. To analyses this paper I will be referring to Aristotelian Proof and the Toulmin model.


Aristotle used three terms to define the human psyche


Ethos is how the author presents himself or herself. In other words, what are the authors qualifications for making this argument? Is he humble, sarcastic, arrogant, scientific, etc. We make judgments all the time about peoples ethos. Think about going into your doctors office and seeing a medical degree from Harvard versus seeing a degree from a no-name town university. What is the difference. The same is true about an author of a piece of writing. The clues are more subtle but they are there if you look for them.


Pathos is more about the audience. How is the audience (of which you are a part) being manipulated. If the writing is a story, and the story is very sad and you are sitting at home crying while you read it, are you going to be more sympathetic to the argument that is being made? Commercials such as those put out by MADD or SADD are heartwrenching when they show pictures or talk about children who were killed by drunk drivers. Does the emotion make you more sympathetic? Of course. You can still believe the argument is valid, but it is important to realize that your emotions are being manipulated. Other areas where this happens is during very patriotic speeches in which you can almost imagine hearing the national anthem playing in the background.


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The argument may or may not be valid, but you are being manipulated by your emotions. Be suspicious of these arguments in general because our emotions are funny things; they can turn our heads away from a very illogical argument. If you can imagine music being played in the background when you are reading or listening to a speech, pathos is probably involved.


Finally, logos does not mean logic. Instead, it means where the author and audience members meet. Where is the common ground between the two? Both sides of a discussion must have common ground on which they can build in order to have a discussion. Major issues, such as abortion or capital punishment, are problematic issues to discuss because neither side can find any common ground with the other side. Therefore, no discussion can take place. There has to be common ground to build on in order to have a discussion and find resolution. These issues will never be resolved between the two binaries because no common ground exists between absolute black and white issues.


The Toulmin model describes the following


claim the element in the Toulmin model of argumentation that is the proposition the arguer supports


data another name for grounds in the Toulmin model of argumentation


backing; the element in the Toulmin model of argumentation that justifies believing the warrant


qualifier the element in the Toulmin model of argumentation that is any term or phrase that indicates the strength of the claim.


warrant the element in the Toulmin model of argumentation that explains why the grounds legitimately support the claim.


fields of argument subject related communities of arguers with argumentative rules specific to each community.


grounds the element in the Toulmin model of argumentation that is the evidence used to support the claim


modal qualifier another name for the qualifier in the Toulmin model of argumentation.


possible rebuttal the element in the Toulmin model of argumentation that is a statement indicating under what circumstances the claim may not be true.


verifiers the element added to the Toulmin model of argumentation that provides justification for believing the grounds.





Krugman starts the article by writing of the Gilded Age mansions that were monuments of a bygone social area. This is to connect with the reader no matter where they may be Long Island, Pittsburgh or Uniontown. The reader can refer to their personal experiences when reading the article that these homes were built by people of wealth at the turn of the century and this wealth was not evident in the 150s and 60s. He also writes about how these homes in the 150s and 60s in a middle class societies were not personal residence as they were when they were built, but now museums, nursing homes and Private Schools. The reader has to takes his word on what it was like in that area during the 150s and 60s because most of us reading it were not there. This is setting up the argument using Ethos as the persuasion tool. Ethos is the quality or strategies in writing that impresses the reader/audience with the authority and sense of the writer/speaker. So again, we take the writer’s word that this is how it was in the 150s and 60s. Krugman is setting up his argument by comparing the 150s to the late 10s with comeback of the mansions and the excess that many of the new wealth has and how poor the low class has become in the same time period.


The information in the beginning of the article is to anger the average reader so to get the reader to continue and finish the article. This article is an opinion or editorial so as to give one or a few persons point of view and to stir up debate or to create conversation on the differences in the classes. For example Krugman states in the beginning of the article that “ My sense is that few people are aware of just how much the gap between the very rich and the rest has widened over a relatively short period of time. In fact, evening bringing up the subject exposes you to charges of “class warfare”, the “politics of envy” and so on” these coments are to stir the


So in the beginning of the article he is explaining his argument the way Stephen Toulmin explained it in his model. Toulmin model shows that opinion (argument) is already created, due to the writer or speaker already having his or her mind made up and if this wasn’t true there would be no need for the argument to exist.


After establishing the argument Krugman now begins to justify his position by adding data that supports his belief. He uses an example from 1 when The New York Times Magazine profiled Thierry Despont an architect who specializes in designing houses for the supper rich. The homes that Despont design range from 0,000 to 60,000 square feet. This is just slightly smaller that the White House. This piece of information is just the start of Krugman’s argument that the inequality in the classes. This is only the beginning of the argument to persuade the audience to believe there is a large discrepancy


between the “haves and the have nots” .


Not only does Krugman talk about financial difference he continues to discuss the discrepancy with health care and political power in the United States. Krugman provides us with the warrants for the Toulmin Model. What is true for the financial system can be generally true for the health care and political system. Krugman is also able to have backing for his warrants (Toulmin Model). For example He writes about how “The 1,000 richest families in America now have almost as much income as the 0 million poorest. And those 1,000 families have incomes 00 times that of the average family”.


Krugman in his argument continues to go for the readers sense (Pathos) of injustice.


This is not to say that the reader does not have the right to draw these conclusions of injustice in the U.S. society concerning the extremely wealthy. This type of writing fuels the reader with more hatred for the wealthy, by taping into the readers personal experience toward the wealthy. Krugman use Pathos through out the piece to stir emotion and possible prejudices that the reader may already have toward the wealthy or ultra rich.





http//mrs.umn.edu/~joinerj/CollegeWriting-Spring-0/ethos.htm


http//mrs.umn.edu/~joinerj/CollegeWriting-Spring-0/


http//www.humboldt.edu/~act/Toulmin/review.html


http//www.concentric.net/~Creyn66/COMM5/Toulmin.htm


http//www.thismodernworld.com/weblog/archive/00_10_1_bloggera.html � analysis


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Saturday, July 30, 2011

Give Me Truth

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American Literature Essay


“Rather than love, than money, than fame, give me truth.” If only this statement could be the world’s motto, we would truly experience peace on earth. From the beginning of creation, the fall of man was because of a lie. Since that time man has done nothing but search for truth. Wars, famines, and most of history’s great devastations to human kind have been caused by human deceit. Lies, fame, money, and even love have caused people to murder, cheat, and steal.


The truth can also sometimes hurt, especially when it has to do with a persons appearance. When a person asks you how you think they look, do they expect an honest answer, or are they searching for a compliment? Or, if you give your honest opinion, will they appreciate it, or get mad at you for what you have said? Even Jesus Christ was crucified for speaking the truth. In most cases, as with myself, I feel a little hurt at the time it is said, and maybe get a little upset, but overall I appreciate the honesty in the person and I will try to let them know.


As with my own past experiences, when others have lied to me, I have found that all trust in them has been broken. I feel that you should not put yourself in the position to hurt someone whom you love, but if you do wrong them, you should be honest in telling him or her what exactly happen. When you lie, you may get away with it for a little while, but in the end the truth is going to come out anyway. When it does it seems so much worse because not only did you do the wrong thing, but you also made it worse by lying. A relationship with anyone is nothing without trust, whether a parent, a friend, or a spouse. The end result is broken trust. Trust, in my opinion, is one of the hardest things in life to earn, the easiest to lose, and the very hardiest to regain once broken.


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How can anyone put a price tag on truth or trust? All the money, fame, and power in the world could not buy it. I think that there is no worse feeling in the world than to go around not trusting the people you are with. For this reason alone, I try to live by this statement, “Rather than love, than money, than fame, give me truth.”








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Thursday, July 21, 2011

accounting dillemas

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(R.4). What are the limitations of accounting information?


Accounting information can be used to assist both financial and managerial oriented decisions. In order to come to effective financial or managerial decisions, many factors other than accounting should be duly considered.


Accounting information is extremely vital in/and for all enterprises though it does have certain limitations.


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I. Accounting is only one source of information and primarily provides information based on financial terms Although this information is vital, decisions cannot be based solely on a monetary basis. Various decisions depend upon a diverse range of issues being considered. A unique combination of Quantitative as well as Qualitative factors should be considered to ensure an effective decision making process.


II. The historical perspective of financial accounting In order to obtain a recent estimate of an entity’s financial performance, the corporate managers carefully scrutinize financial accounting information. In retrospect, this information is based on past performance. The information does provide clarity on the monetary issues but does not provide a definite insight into the strategic future; as the future holds various changes in terms of technology, economic situations as well as political scenarios etc. Such factors in relation to accounting are unpredictable. Therefore, a careful balance between historical accounting as well as the future forecasted outlook is required.


III. Historical cost accounting vs. underlying value in use Some items loose their monetary value over a period of time, but under the financial accounting rules need to be included in financial reports. Though mentioned year after year in the books as monetary figures, the information may be unreliable due to the historical assumptions made on the item’s measurability criterion. For example, a machine in a textile factory is considered to have a useful life which extends over a period of ten years in monetary terms; however, after the period of ten years, the machine may still have the same value as prior years and contribute significantly to the overall operability of the factory.


IV. Inability to reflect the true value of strategic management Various factors such as goodwill and natural circumstances influence the operations of an enterprise; however, these elements are difficult to measure thus, leading to their unavoidable exclusion from financial reports. For example companies depend upon their shareholders, who in turn depend on the performance of the Chief Executive Officers. Although the CEOs may have been hired by the company based upon prior performance, their future performances are not reliably measurable as they may continually vary. In the initial stages, it may be impossible to measure whether the CEO’s presence will deter or appeal to the shareholders, which in turn will influence the profitability of the enterprise.


V. Measuring Volatility of external factors Financial accounting information does not take into consideration volatile and ever increasing changes in the natural and commercial environment. Although scarcely measurable in monetary terms, their unstable nature may have adverse effects if included within the financial reports and have a volatile and cosmetic impact upon the earnings of the firm. For example, tariffs on trade, duties and other environmental issues can have significant short-term volatile effects on the organisation.


VI. The effect of non-stable monetary unit Based from region to region, accounting information is generated at all enterprises based on the assumption that the monetary unit is stable over a period of time. In the real world scenario, the unit fluctuates on a daily basis. Enterprises usually decide on a flat rate to calculate their financing and investing needs. However, this can have adverse impacts which cannot be communicated to shareholders, if the unit has high fluctuations. For example Indonesia 15 US$ 1 = RP 6000, 17 US$ 1 = RP 1000, 1 US$ 1 = RP 000. (Figures are approximates, just to provide an insight into the argument about the effects of the fluctuations)


From the answer above, it is evident that certain limitations of accounting information have to be taken into consideration before enterprises use merely financial information to aid their decision making process.


(R.7) What are the challenges for ethics in business? Are they different for accountants?


Ethics is defined as that branch of philosophy concerned with the moral life and consisting of consideration of one’s ordinary actions, judgments and justification as a means of discovering what one ought to do and of determining what actions are morally good, acceptable, or right and what actions are unacceptable or wrong (Campbell, 18).


A manager within an organisation always faces a conflict of interest between short term profitability and long term sustainability of the entity. If the manager chooses to implement decisions that are beneficial to the entity in the long term, his behaviour is primarily considered to be ethical. However, the goal of achieving short-term profit maximization has been duly compromised. According to self-interest theory an individual seeks to maximize his/her personal utility whereby short-term profit maximization motives could be thought dominate managerial incentives.


Ethicists have developed two frameworks relevant to businesses. They are the Utilitarian and Deontology frameworks. Utilitarianism is defined as the moral correctness of an action based entirely on its consequences whereas Deontology defines moral correctness of an action through the underlying nature of its correctness. Deontology can be divided into two parts where one part considers that action itself is measured thus lying is always unacceptable, on the other hand, the other part considers the cumulative nature of action as well as the consequences and thereby deems that lying could be acceptable under certain circumstances.


Ethics within the scenario of businesses are largely determined by the frameworks outlined above. Business ethics have a large impact upon the global society as fraud and embezzlement can impose large dead-weight losses within the world economy. In Australia, business ethics are primarily defined by the Corporations Law and Accounting Professional Codes Of Conduct such as the ICAA which govern the professional behaviour of the relevant professional members.


Ethical rules for accountants are subtly more stringent than for normal business professionals. Under the assumption, that the ethical behaviour of accountants mirrors the behaviour of the company auditors, I seek to explain the underlying dilemma. The Chief Financial Officer works under the supervision of the Chief Executive Officer of the organisation. His/her primary responsibility is to ensure that the financial reports prepared under his supervision mirrors the true and fair view about the financial. operating and investing decisions of the entity. He is directly accountable to the shareholders for his actions. However, his actions are determined by the leadership of the CEO. If the CEO demands the CFO to incorrectly manipulate the financial reports of the organisation, the individual faces a dilemma. He has a dual sense of responsibility and an ethical situation arises whereby, he/she can either pursue his own self-interests (financial security) or disobey the commands of the CEO and report fairly to the share-holders. Thereby, following the correct spirit of ethical behaviour, his role entails reporting fairly to the shareholders and whistle blowing against the CEO.





(R.8) Is there a conflict between self-interest and ethical behaviour?


In classical terms, self interest theory and ethical behaviour are deemed to have an eternal conflict. In accounting literature this conflict is termed as “Compensation Plans”


The plan states that managers who have a short-term time horizon with an enterprise and have their bonuses based upon the short-term profitability of the enterprise will be motivated to pursue their personal agendas (wealth) rather than enhance the long-term sustainability of the enterprise. In deontology terms, there is a significant conflict of interest in terms of the ethical behaviour of the manager which could be compromised by the self-interests of the manager who might manipulate the true underlying profitability of the going-concern.


(R.11) What are the economic consequences of accounting policy choice?


Accounting policies affect the reported figures which appear in the financial statements which affect the wealth of managers.





There are three economic consequences of accounting policy choice


I. Compensations Plans In this case the organisational bonus scheme is used to bring the interests of both the managers and the shareholders together. However an economic consequence of the bonus scheme is that managers may also be motivated to cosmetically increase reported profit by the appropriate selection of income-increasing accounting policies which might not mirror the true underlying increase in the reported profits of the entity.


II. Debt contracts If an entity is approaching the limits of a clause in a debt contract, there are incentives for managers to select appropriate accounting policies which allow the company to avoid being in violation of the debt contract, by income-increasing accounting policies.


III. Political costs refer to the costs imposed on a company via regulatory bodies. Political costs are hypothesized to be a function of size measured in terms of net profit, total assets or total sales. Political costs create incentives for managers of large organizations to select income-decreasing accounting policies in order to reduce political visibility.


(P.4) Discuss what information you believe would be useful to the following group of report users


I. Employees The most essential information required by the employees is the information relating to the survival of the enterprise they work for as they earn their wages from the going-concern. Financial reports provide an insight for the employees to understand whether the enterprise is currently making profits or losses which in accordance can lead to fairer wage negotiations etc. Most importantly, it provides employees with an opportunity to assess their level of security with the enterprise.


II. Investors Most importantly, financial reports provide investors with insight relating to the profitability and sustainability of the underlying entity. It also offers the investors a chance to compare itself to other enterprises in terms of monetary performance and divulge where certain changes can be made in order to gain competitive advantage. Investors may also base their decisions on selling or retaining their shares based on the past history of financial reports.


III. Regulators Considering the regulator to be the government in this case, the most essential benefit to the government from financial reports is the levying of taxes for the enterprises. Apart from this, the government can also use the financial information to include in producing industry statistics. The information also assists the government in assessing the level of fair competition within the realm of a particular industry.


IV. Suppliers of goods and services The financial reports assist the suppliers in determining whether the enterprise is going to remain in business. In some cases, suppliers have an outstanding debt from the enterprises and the reports provide insight as to whether the enterprises will be able to meet their debts. Based on the reports, suppliers can also decide the credit limits and time they are willing to offer to the enterprises etc.


V. Customers Customers over a period of time become attached to certain products, which in turn leads them to keep up with the enterprises performance in monetary terms; whether the company is going to survive and be able to consistently supply their goods or services. These reports also provide the customers with an opportunity to assess the substitute goods/services in monetary terms, whereby the customer can assess the ultimate value for money good/service.





What are the main arguments of the article on “Financial Reporting of Cultural, Heritage, Scientific and Community Collections”?


Article Summary This article attempts to inform the readers about the existing CHSCCs debate between the academics and the regulatory accounting bodies, namely the AASB and the FASB. It describes the nature of cultural, heritage as well as scientific collections and discusses the feasibility of recognizing these items as assets on the statements of financial positions for public sector entities.


The main arguments reported within the article are based primarily on the definition of assets as well as the perceived usefulness of financial information generated after the recognition of CHSCCs as assets, In order to outline the arguments, it is crucial to define assets as future “economic benefits controlled by the entity as a result of past transaction or other past events” (SAC 4).


Future economic benefits The common characteristics possessed by all assets (economic resources) is service potential or future economic benefit, the scarce capacity to provide services or benefits to the entities that utilize them. CSHCCs although generally held for long periods of time and seldom sold, are assets that continue to provide economic benefits or service potential through their use. In a not-for-profit organization that service potential is used to provide desired goods or services to beneficiaries. Thereby, Carnegie and Wolnizer view that CHSCCs cannot be defined as assets because they do not embody financially quantifiable service potential as they do not generate net cash inflows either through regular activities of the entities in which they are held or by commercial exchange, does not hold true. This argument highlights the apparent misconception in Carnegie and Wolnizer’s argument that the existence of assets is not defined nearly by the unreliability of its measurement rather by the achievement of its objectives. The ASB and the PSASB in Australia strengthen this view by stating that the mere ability to generate net cash inflow is not critical in determining whether these CHSCCs embody future economic benefits and linking future economic benefits with net cash inflows, as Carnegie and Wolnizer do, would mean that most items held by not for profit entities would not qualify as assets.


Control A museum, art gallery or library may choose to either impose charges or allow the free viewing of its collections; these choices do not affect the control of the CHSCCs by the entity. These choices do not affect the control of CHSCCs as such entities do not encompass full cost recovery and the entities inability to impose charges for the publics use of these assets does not compromise their control over CHSCCs. Thereby, Carnegie and Wolnizer’s arguments that museums, art galleries and libraries do not control their CHSCCs because of the restrictions on their use and disposal does not stand true. The inability to sell CHSCCs does not compromise the utility of the entity as their objectives are significantly different.


Past transactions and other past events This argument is accepted by academics and regulators alike whereby this essential characteristic of an asset is satisfied by the CHSCCs.


Value-in use and value-in exchange Exchangeability is not an essential characteristic of an asset because future economic benefits are not precluded by their inability to sever an asset from the entity, nor are they necessarily related to the existence of present disposal value (SAC 4). The disclosure of the value-in-use and value-in-exchange in terms of CHSCCs within the statement of financial position has a broader purpose than merely reporting to the external parties, solely on the solvency position of an entity. Therefore, Carnegie and Wolnizer’s argument that value in exchange is a collection of no consequence and thereby, the statement of financial position is a poor predictor of the solvency of an entity is negated.


Recognition criteria for assets An important criterion for the recognition of assets on the statement of financial positions is the reliable determination of the cost. Carnegie and Wolnizer believe that CHSCCs fail this critical requirement and state that the historical costs and current costs of CHSCCs are irrelevant because historical or market values cannot be reliably determined for CHSCCs. However, this assertion that recognizing assets at such amounts is irrelevant, is an argument about the most relevant basis of measurement, not about the recognition. It is argued that this information is certainly better than no disclosure about these assets.


Usefulness of information Information about CHSCCs controlled by public sector entities is necessary to make informed assessments about the allocation of scarce public funds, and any changes in the allocation of funds from period to period. The public has a definite beneficial interest in the recognition of CHSCCs because it is the public itself that provides the funds required by these entities to acquire assets and to fund operations. Thereby, Carnegie and Wolnizer’s argument that the reporting of CHSCCs is not economically useful can be carefully scrutinized.


Cost benefit considerations The authors argue that Carnegie and Wolnizer’s estimate of the cost of valuing CHSCCs for the state library and national gallery is probably unjustified ($.5 million). The authors estimate the cost to be closer to $450000 and state that the benefits are more difficult to identify and measure. CHSCCs benefits are hypothesized as generally outweighing the cost of the exercise which is in direct opposition of Carnegie and Wolnizer’s argument that the cost of requiring CHSCCs to be valued is prohibitive.


Recognition not generally accepted or practiced The authors argue that current practice should not influence best practice for the future and thereby the survey results obtained by Carnegie and Wolnizer in support of their view that CHSCCs should not be recognised as assets is unjustified. Although, the recognition and measurement of CHSCCs is not generally accepted or practiced in Australia or the United States, survey results aside, this should not nearly lead to the acceptance of the argument that CHSCCs should not be recognised as it would be deemed as accepting the status quo.


Other arguments Finally, the article outlines other reasons for the resistance to recognizing and measuring CHSCCs. These arguments include that the managers of an art museum might be able to effectively manage the collection to enhance their own personal status by pursuing the recognition of CHSCCs.


“As a general rule, public sector accounting should be totally different to private sector accounting.” Discuss.


Accounting information is determined primarily by the underlying financial structure of an entity. It can be assumed that the objectives of private entities and public entities are significantly different. The overall objective of private entities is the maximization of profits whereas the objective of most public entities is to fulfill the needs of its beneficiaries.


Furthermore, as public sector entities are non profit organizations, managers are not motivated to manipulate the true financial performance of the entities, to enhance their personal status for income benefits. On the other hand, the managers of private sector entities can be assumed to be motivated by self-interest theory, thereby, leading to the possible manipulation of the true financial performance of the entity. As the nature of these entities and the motivations for accounting policy choices are significantly different, I argue that the governing rules and regulations should be adjusted accordingly, to suit the differing objectives of the organizations.








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Wednesday, July 20, 2011

Analysis of "Wag The Dog"

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Contexts help to determine the meanings we make of a text. Using examples from a feature film you have studied, show how your understanding of the film was shaped by the interaction of your own expectations, attitudes and values with those in the text.


The construction of a feature film is very significant in that it aids viewers to gain an understanding of the meanings being conveyed. The film Wag the Dog by Barry Levinson is an American satire which demonstrates how easy it is to whip up patriotic frenzy, and how dubious the motives sometimes are. Through exposure of the underlying issues of media manipulation and corruption of the USA’s democratic system, viewers are made to question their faith in values and attitudes regarding democracy, authority and the media. The values and attitudes evolving from the issues raised in this movie is conveyed to viewers through a variety of filmic conventions such as selection of shots, dialogue, camera angles, music and symbolism.


America is known as a powerful democracy but in Wag the Dog, Levinson confronts viewers’ values and attitudes towards this notion through the construction of this film. We are confronted with images of American icons such as the White House, the Capital building and other Washington monuments, during the opening scene of Wag the Dog. Americans regard these icons as of great importance to them as they vest honesty, integrity and democracy in these institutions. But this film challenges that view by reinforcing viewers to view these icons as facades of the concentration of political power of the USA. This view is further reinforced when we see Bream, Ames and another lady walking down a flight of stairs in the White House. As we are given a close-up shot of their feet hastily descending down the stairs, the lighting also gets darker as if to denote they are going underground. There is also a shot of them as if they are being caught on a security camera. Connotations of subterfuge and secrecy fill viewers’ minds, and we get a sense that beneath the seat of government lays darkness and evil. There is a particular montage of a multi-racial choir singing arousing patriotic song called ‘American Dream’, which includes the following words and phrases ‘courage’; ‘strength’; ‘free’; ‘we have the right to fight for democracy and keep our country free’; ‘the American spirit’; ‘our country has been the rock of liberty’. This montage is juxtaposed with Bream, Moss and the others making jokes about their fabricated stories. These techniques encourage viewers to believe that the values espoused in the song only exist in the form of rhetoric. Through a colorful range of techniques such as montage, lighting, camera angles and music, this film has been constructed to challenge the views that the audience hold of America being a democratic society.


The case of authority is another issue brought up in this film. Americans are brought up to regard the President as the main source of power in America and that his presidency upholds such principles and values as liberty, honour, truth and integrity. In Wag the Dog, viewers are given a reality check as it encourages them to think that the presidency is about looking after the interests and persona of the president and that the media and other power groups such as the CIA run the most powerful democratic government in the world, instead of the president himself. The office of president is seen as corruptible and that the president’s assistants are prepared to go to sinister and unlawful lengths to save the reputation of the president. Conrad Bream, the Whitehouse adviser, is also the one responsible for diverting the public’s attention with his media hoax in order to protect the president’s standing. He is seen from a low-angle shot at the beginning of the film, while contemplating the idea of distracting the public from the sex scandal. This camera angle emphasizes the dominance and power of Bream. He is always seen with a prominent red scarf, which contrasted against his dark clothes spell out danger and wickedness. We do not see the president when he is making his speech on TV, which has been composed by Moss. We only see the autocue of Moss’s words and as we hear the sentimental words of the speech such as “Merciful god, and a supreme power”, there is a montage of the white house and various shots of the city. This technique emphasizes the meaningless and phony nature of the president’s words.


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There are no shots and images of the president as he is relegated to a very minor role in the film. This particular selection of detail is to persuade viewers to believe that the president is also demoted to a minor role in running the country. Moss’s dialogue encourages viewers to believe that the media has more influence in running the country than the president does as he specifically states, “He can’t end the war, he’s not producing this. This is my picture not the CIA’s picture.” This quote also suggests that, at times, other groups such as the CIA manipulate the truth and make decisions about the way the country is run. There is another scene whereby they are shooting the fabricated story of the war in Albania the president says that he wants a white kitten use d instead of a Calico kitten, and Moss solemnly says, “I hate it when they start to meddle.” This further reinforces the fact that even when involving himself in petty issues, the president still gets in the way of the real business of running the country. Thus a variety of techniques have been used to construct and reinforce the notion that the president is more concerned with his image and that authoritarian power does not rest with the president.


In Wag the Dog, the media is depicted as a group consisting of creative but cynical and self-serving people who manipulate the public by lying and by using film techniques to present a constructed and mostly fictitious version of events for their own selfish ends. The American people in turn are seen as gullible and easily influenced by the media. The recurring motif of the television set and its images are littered throughout this movie. They are seen in a variety of settings airports, bars, restaurants, stores, houses and aeroplanes. The fact that the television seems to be omnipresent reinforces the notion that the influence of TV media on our lives is compelling. Levinson sequences and structures a particular scene whereby the Bream is seen fabricating a story about the president receiving a sheaf and giving his coat in turn to the girl’s grandmother. This is then followed by the television version of the fabricated story. Viewers are able to see that this sentimental and supposedly humanitarian version of events presented in the media is in fact fallacious and insensitive. We are confronted with a montage of street scenes of ordinary American people being affected by the hype surrounding the fake war. There are people throwing their shoes in public places and wearing patriotic T-shirts, while a patriotic song “We are American” is being played in the background. Unlike us the viewers, these people are unaware that it is all a fabrication. Viewers are able to then see that the American public is extremely vulnerable and mindless in their acceptance of everything the media tells them, which includes being patriotic. We also feel a sense of disgust that the people pulling the media’s strings are doing this for extremely questionable motives. The success of the reinforcement of these notions on viewers is due to the contexts of the film.


Wag the Dog contains just enough realistic ballast to be teasingly plausible and the biggest irony of it is that just a few months after this film was released, the then President of the USA, Bill Clinton, was involved in a sex scandal. But amongst the satire and the irony projected in this movie, is the daunting question of whether the information we are given through the media does have a profound function of deception. Levinson has successfully shaped viewers’ concept of the feature film Wag the Dog by questioning their system of values through a wide variety of filmic codes.





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Monday, July 18, 2011

secret sharer

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Sunday, July 17, 2011

Driving Away

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Liz -Mum (widow)


Claire -Daughter


Jack -Clair’s boyfriend


Peter - Liz’s husband (now dead)


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She gently laid the flowers down and stepped aside, a cold tear rolled down her cheek and hit the gravestone. It had been three years since Peter had died. She gazed at his name, and memories flooded back.


Her daughter wandered into the kitchen, she sat down at the table and hugged her hot mug of coffee, the steam wafted into her face and she looked up.


“Mum? ” it was said wheedly with that you don’t want to know this but, tone of voice


“I’ve got a new boyfriend called Jack and I’ve invited him over for Sunday lunch this weekend.”


Her mum’s heart sank “and who are you expecting to cook, I’m not a mass vending machine.”


“But mum I’ve promised him now, I can’t go back on my word”


“You should of thought of that first, now stop being so selfish, and finish your homework.”


“But” Liz’s stern eyes glared right through Claire and made a whole on the other side, and she disappeared upstairs to sulk in her room.


Later after this ordeal her mum flopped down into the armchair and realised that her daughter had grown up, and was not an innocent child who could not fight for herself any more, but a young lady who has boyfriends!!! The whole family had been through a lot, there was Peter’s death and that really affected Claire and then recently she had her A-Levels, she worked so hard, and achieved what any mother could want, and be proud of, all A’s. We have both started to relax ready for the holidays but were still waiting for a reply from Oxford University to see if she has been accepted.


But in the mean time we will both really try to enjoy ourselves, because I want Claire to grow up normally just like any other family, but then what can replace Peter, a dad is so important to a child’s life, but we will manage, just.


The next week a letter arrived in the post addressed To Claire; Liz hesitantly picked it off the floor, and called for Claire, she came grudgingly down the stairs and saw what here mum was holding, she ran forward and snatched it out of he mums hands, then sat on the stairs. Her eyes were fixed on this letter, most of her life depended on the contents of this envelope. She tore open the seal and took the letter out, her mum heard her take a deep breath and saw her look down. A smile broke out and a tear glistened in her eye.


“I’ve been accepted” she shouted with a burst of happiness and her mum opened her arms and enclosed her daughter in her woolly grey fleece, and the smell of home, flooded into Claire. Liz was so happy for her and immediately, they were phoning all the family and her friends, and many came round to congratulate her including Jack, Clair’s boyfriend! But luckily her mum behaved herself and made him welcome. Soon the fuss had died down and everybody had gone home including Jack.


At the end of September Liz was helping Claire to pack her clothes and belongings in to suitcases and boxes ready to transport them into her new house in Oxford with five other flat mates. Soon her car was filled to the brim, and while Claire was walking around the house to see if she had forgotten anything, her Mum was making her favourite, ham and gherkin sandwiches for the journey and placed them on the car seat next to the map. Claire then slowly walked out of the house, and gently closed the door behind her, she turned and look up at the house; she was leaving her past behind her but entering a new stage of her life instead. She walked up to her Mum and gave her a loving hug; no words were exchanged just looks and tears (from Liz). Claire got in the car, slammed the door shut and started the engine, she waved out of the window as she slowly left her mother standing on the pavement alongside the lay-by where the car was always parked, Liz didn’t move even when her daughter was totally out of sight.


“Have a safe journey, and don’t forget to eat your sandwiches” Liz called out wishing Clair could hear.


She sat down on the wall, and realised that all the arguments were nothing compared to what she felt now, she took a deep breath and wiped away the tears, walking back into the house, she entered the kitchen and there were memories of Claire all around, photos, notes, even last nights meal which Claire hadn’t washed up, Liz chuckled, but wasn’t cross. She found herself sitting down at the table all alone, with a photo of Claire and Jack holding hands, a warm tear rolled down her cheek and hit the photo, she gazed at her daughters face, and happy, warm memories flooded back.





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Saturday, July 16, 2011

The Thin Line Between Love And Fate

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The Thin Line between Love and Fate


Love is a term which is impossible to thoroughly define, yet it is universally understood. Furthermore, the questions surrounding the indefinable term of love are more perplexing than the word itself. What is true love? Can a person love too much? What is love worth? All of these questions are pertinent to Aeneas and Dido, as they have fallen in love with one another. However, Aeneas is destined by the Gods to lay the foundation for Rome and not to remain in Carthage with Dido. Aeneas eventually destroys Dido by abandoning her to fulfill his destiny in Italy; however, is Aeneas just in doing so?


Aeneas is unfair in his desertion of Dido. Aeneas and Dido are deeply in love and for the short period that Aeneas remains in Carthage, he disregards his decreed fate. Aeneas frequently allows his life to be heavily governed by divine forces and by opting to be with Dido, Aeneas finally acts on his own accord. However, after a short time in Carthage Aeneas is confronted by Mercury (sent by Jupiter) and told to leave Carthage to fulfill his destiny. Aeneas chooses to abandon Dido and he willingly complies with the Gods’ commands. Aeneas cares for Dido, yet he treats her without empathy when he prepares to depart to Italy. Virgil narrates that Aeneas feels grief and regret in his decision to leave Dido, yet he expresses no emotion to her. Aeneas’ cold and detached attitude towards Dido drive her to frenzy and she soon kills herself cursing Aeneas as a betrayer. By abandoning Dido, Aeneas sacrifices a happy love and a life in Carthage filled with opportunity. Furthermore, by not expressing his true feelings upon his parting, he takes the strong, secure and competent Dido and drives her to madness. Perhaps Aeneas is virtuous in his respect for the Gods; however, his lack of compassion towards the one he loves is shameful. On the other hand, there are imperfections in Dido and Aeneas’ relationship.


The initial flaw in the love between Dido and Aeneas is that it is not true. Dido is resolute in her decision never to remarry, but she becomes cursed by Cupid’s arrow of love. Dido does not fall for Aeneas based on his character or attributes; she is simply under divine control. Had Venus and Juno abstained from interfering with mortal affairs, there is no telling whether Dido would have embraced Aeneas to begin with. Furthermore Aeneas does not fall in love with Dido, until Juno produces a storm, which leaves Dido and Aeneas stranded alone together. Their love is not real, but it is rather a product of divine intervention. In addition, the love artificial love that Dido holds for Aeneas is overwhelming and far from beneficial.


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Dido describes her love for Aeneas as being like a flame inside of her (IV 7). This reference to fire implies a great deal about Dido’s feelings for Aeneas. Fire is a beautiful thing; it is valuable and powerful, yet without control, it is dangerous and chaotic. Dido’s love for Aeneas is out of control and before long it consumes her. Dido’s mind is devoured by the flames of love inside of her, just as her body is consumed by the flames in the pyre. Dido is so absorbed by her love with Aeneas she allows her emotions to take precedent over he obligations to Carthage. Dido acknowledges the lack of faith her people have in her when she says to Aeneas, “my/ own Tyrians are hostile; and for you/ and that good name that once/ was mine” (IV 40-4). Dido knows that she has sacrificed her honor for her love of Aeneas and the realization that she has lost them both sends her further into madness. Dido was tragically a puppet Juno’s manipulations and she should not be frowned upon for her actions. Aeneas on the other hand, is directed by the greatest of gods and theoretically his actions are inherently honorable.











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Life in the Treetops

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This book is all about Margaret D. Lowman and her life. She was born and raised in the United States but later moved to Australia to do her research. She met her husband there who was a sheep farmer and they had two kids. Her mother-in-law didn’t support her and neither did her father-in-law. She didn’t really get along with her husband because she was so interested in science and he was so interested in farming so they eventually got a divorce. In Australia Margaret Lowman studied the rainforest. Most of all she liked to study the canopy of the rainforest. She researched the dieing out of the trees and how long each leafs life span was, and just why that they were dyeing out so fast. When she first started her research she was having to climb by ropes and ladders but later on in her research she put up bridges across the canopy so u know longer had to climb up a rope to each tree you could just walk across the bridge. She did this in many places all throughout the world.


The main characters in this book are Margaret Lowman and her two sons. Her sons names are Eddie and James. They were the most important people in her life. Her students from where she later went on to teach college, and her professors from her college days played an important role in her life. She took them on some of her research trips, and just different places. One of the places that she went was the African rainforest where she went up into the canopy on a raft and did all of her research from there.


This book is definitely a study of biology because it talks about the adventures of a woman in field biology. Margaret Lowman studied the rainforest canopy and why trees die out and how long they last. She went all around the world studying the rainforest. She built the first swinging bridge across the canopy. If she hadn’t have decided to build the bridge across the canopy people still might not be able to have that much access to the rainforest canopy.


The information in this book is so useful because if it hadn’t been for her research we wouldn’t know a lot of the things that we know today. Her studies showed that a beetle in the rainforest was eating some of the trees and making them die out and that other trees leaves may live up to 0 years. While she was in the rain forest she discovered new plants and animals that had never been discovered before. These findings could lead to the cure for cancer or many other harmful diseases, it could also just help to save the rainforest. She went and studied sea snakes with her professor and studied plants in the ocean. Her professor got bit by a deadly sea snake but didn’t have any side effects from it at all. They determined in which conditions the sea snakes lived and which they didn’t. This will help us to be careful in certain places so that we won’t get bitten by a sea snake. The research that she has performed over her lifetime is so amazing and it will help out in so many different ways.


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This book wasn’t hard to read at all. It had some big words in it that I didn’t understand but it explained them at the bottom of the page. The beginning of the book was hard to understand because all it did was give you facts about trees and the


rainforest, it didn’t talk much about her or what she was doing. I didn’t understand some of the things that she was doing through out the book, later on throughout the book it started explaining them better. I would recommend this book to anyone who likes to read things about biology and the environment. I don’t really like to read so reading this book wasn’t very much fun for me, but for anyone who interested in things like this it would be an amazing book for them to read.


Amber Boatwright


Margaret. D. Lowman


Copyright 1


Published with assistance from the Mary Cady Tew Memorial fund


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Friday, July 15, 2011

Causes of World War I

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There were many causes to World War I (114 - 118). The issue of which country was to blame of causing this great war is very controversial. No one country was to blame. The four main causes of World War I was militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism.


Militarism is the glorification of the military. This was a romantic view of the war. Germany and Great Britain were in great competition. Both countries were increasing their naval spending. This arms race, or the build up of armies and navies, caused fear and suspicion. Germany had challenged Britain as the number one naval power. This led to a hostile relationship.


Alliances were agreements among nations to aid each other if attacked. By 107, Europe was divided. Great Britain, France, and Russia all formed the Allies while Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy formed the Central Powers. As seen in Document 4, the position of Germany might have led to an early declaration of was because it was surrounded by the allied powers.


Imperialism, competition for trade and colonies, resulted in tense relationships between European nations. Britain and France formed alliances against Germany as a result of competition for colonies. Germany wanted to expand and take over Europe, as seen in Document 1.


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Nationalism was pride and devotion to one’s country. This led people to support their government even if it meant war. France, whose pride had been hurt after the Franco-Prussian war, wanted revenge against Germany and regain Alsace and Lorraine. This seen in Document . Ethnic minorities, such as the Slavic people, wanted unity and independence. Russia felt obligated to defend all Slavs because they all shared a common nationality. By 114, ethnic tensions in the Balkans were increasing, making it the “powder keg” of Europe.


The immediate cause of World War I was the assassination of Archduke Frances Ferdinand of Austria Hungary in 114. He was assassinated by Gavilo Princep, a member of the Black Hand (a Serbian nationalist group). This event is depicted in Document 7. Austria-Hungary wanted to punished Serbia. They issued an ultimatum, or a final set of demands. An excerpt of these Austrian demands can be seen in Document 8.


World War I had many causes to it. Militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism were the four main causes. Most of the European countries were all in somewhere responsible for the outbreak of war. There was no one country to blame.





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Wednesday, July 13, 2011

Tattoos: not just skin deep

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Tattoos not just skin deep


Just as a war hero is decorated with medals, others decorate themselves with tattoos. They both use their decorations to express different aspects of themselves. Often when people overcome an obstacle or show bravery they get a tattoo where a veteran has a medal to show off instead. Historically, tattoos have shown honor and rank. Tattoos can also express interests and personality. Tattoos are not, as many people think, merely contemporary fads designed for shock effect but rather they are adornments often of cultural significance going back into history.


Going back as far as tattoos do in history, let’s look at why they got tattooed. First off, rites of passage. The most obvious use of body modification in rites of passage is to mark the body with a permanent reminder of an important event or stage in the individual’s life. Because individuals see the decorations on their bodies every day, which commemorates important times in their lives, they will never forget it, and will also probably never forget how those times felt. Some people mark their bodies in a rite of passage because they feel they need to “move on to a higher plane of existence” (Gargulinski, ). Comparatively, in modern times By piercing and tattooing their bodies they show they are beginning to establish their own identities and they force their parents to see them as separate entities (Howard, 1). Arnold Van Gennep separates rites of passage into three phases rites of separation, rites of transition, and rites of incorporation (Van Gennep, 11). He further divides initiation into a dual series of rites based on these three first there is a rite of separation from the usual environment, then the individual is incorporated into the sacred environment, next is the period of transition, the individual is then separated from the sacred environment, and incorporated into the usual environment, as a new person (Van Gennep, 8).


Tattoos have also shown social status; they have been used both to denote high rank and to brand society‘s outcasts (Tattoo, ). Tattoos told of the person’s position in life, his or her rank and parentage, their marriage status, what line of work they were in, and their ‘mana’ or power bestowed by the gods (Vale, 11). The markings may give information about group membership, rank and status. Body paintings may also indicate the particular social role one is playing at a given time and express social and religious values (Clerk, 57). As punishment the ancient Greeks and Romans used tattoos to brand slaves and criminals (Govenar, 55). Tattoos were used in the 0th century to label inmates of Nazi concentration camps (Tattoo, ).


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They have also been used to show devotion and allegiance. A major devotion has been religiously. Many traditional cultures also used tattoos on the flesh as a sort of passport to the world after death, although interestingly, with all the emphasis on the next world in ancient Egyptian culture, there is no indication that this was the case their (Lloyd, ). The traditional reasons for tattooing included to connect with the Divine, as a tribute or act of sacrifice to a deity, or as a talisman to provide magical or medical protection (Lloyd, ). Other signs of devotion that are common in Japanese cultures are badges of initiation where they must complete a task and then they get a “badge” signifying the accomplishment. Modernly people will show devotion to their country, a loved one (whether as a tribute or in memory), or even a sports team.


There are also spiritual, somewhat cleansing and therapeutic, reasons to get tattoos. Women will get tattoos after divorces to prove that they are moving on and showing strength. When people survive life threatening things such as accidents or illness (whether themselves or loved ones) they may choose to get a tattoo to remember the pain and triumph of that time.


Tattoos, modernly, are used to prove things. The ways in which an individual chooses to decorate their body demonstrates who they are or who they wish to be within the boundaries of their society. People choose specific methods of decoration in order to provide their community with a way to judge their internal self externally (Wall). Withstanding the pain of tattooing and other body alterations is significant in American culture. Tiv women remark on the ability of scarification to indicate masculinity and the desire to withstand pain in order to be attractive.


Then there is the most obvious reason self-expression and decoration. Lately, people do it just to be trendy, they see a friend or a celebrity “icon” has it and they want it done. They even use tattoos as permanent make-up. Modern individuals may do it for all sorts of reasons, trivial or profound, but ancient and traditional societies possess serious and conscious reasoning (Tattoo). Tattoos can be used when people are seeking a ‘public identity’ or wish to rebel also.


Although public perception is changing, a visible body mark is still symbolic of rejection of mainstream culture and its ethic of appropriate image and control of the body. In contrast to religious creeds that dictate reverence for God’s finished work of the unmarred human body, body alteration glorifies the human body as unfinished, to be adorned and recreated. Only gradually is it becoming accepted as adornment and as a sign of self-proclaimed identity (Hewitt).


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comapritive essay

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Morrie’s outlook toward death is quite different than that of Mr. Pignati. Mr. Pignati’s actions after Conchetta’s death do not agree with Morrie’s philosophy on death. Some, although few, of their thoughts on death are similar.


Morrie’s approach to the subject of death is that “once you learn how to die, you learn how to live.” He has learned through experience that once you accept that you’re going to die soon, you truly realize what is important in your life. Because Morrie is experiencing this he knows that he should concentrate on the things that are most important to him, instead of focusing on things that are trivial. Morrie also believes that when you experience having someone die, you start to focus on the essentials and forget other things that used to seem important. Mr. Pignati doesn’t agree with Morrie’s theory, according to his actions. When Mr. Pignati experiences the death of his wife, he tries to focus on a routine everyday. He no longer does the things he did before Conchetta died. He now goes to the zoo to visit Bobo and to feed him every day. He doesn’t do the things that he would normally automatically do. After his wife’s death, he doesn’t live his life to the fullest, until he meets his new friends, John and Lorraine. When he meets John and Lorraine, he becomes happier and then has something that is important to him. He still dwells on his wife’s death though, and it still makes him sad.


Morrie also teaches Mitch about how people don’t accept they are going to die. If people believed that they are going to have to die some day, they would do things in their lives differently. They would live their lives to the absolute fullest and never take anything for granted. Morrie thinks that you’ll be more involved in life if you’re prepared to die at any time. Mr. Pignati would focus on the important things if he believed he was going to die some day. Mr. Pignati doesn’t appreciate things like Morrie does. If Mr. Pignati were experiencing not being able to go outside very often like Morrie, he would probably not take this privilege for granted.


Morrie and Mr. Pignati do not share many similarities on their outlooks towards death. Mr. Pignati’s outlook towards death changed once he met John and Lorraine. He became happier and had friends who were important to him. He started to focus on important people more than his daily visits to the zoo. His visits to the zoo were important to him also, but he needed more than Bobo for a friend.


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In conclusion, Mr. Pignati’s outlook toward death, compared to Morrie’s outlook toward death, is very different. Morrie realizes and appreciates the important things in life. Mr. Pignati doesn’t, because he has not experienced the same things as Morrie. They have few similarities. Mr. Pignati does appreciate the friends he has and the time he spends with them. His friends are very important to him, but he is sorrowful because he misses his wife so much.





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Tuesday, July 12, 2011

My leadership experience

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Over the past few years I have been doing quite a bit of reflecting on my experiences in High School. While academics have been a high priority for me, I am a firm believer in a total education, both inside and outside the classroom. Through my experiences as a student leader, I have had a very different kind of education. I have planned programs from start to finish, coordinated groups of diverse and opinionated people towards a common vision, and learned what it means to work towards a common end; from an idea to a practical end.


My first real emotional leadership experience came during my freshman year as I became a member of Peer Mediation. The memories both the good and the bad, the challenging and exciting - are something that I will never forget. I never would have thought that we would have been as successful as we have been to this day. With strong pledge classes, a commitment to ideals, new programs and initiatives for the young community, and a real sense of ownership to something bigger then ourselves, my experience in has been an irreplaceable one.


During my freshman year I was also selected to be a part of Students Helping Other People. This was also an experience; which helped to mold me into the type of person I am today. Looking back, I never really thought it would have ever meant much to me, but it did. The experience brought together 15 very different and opinionated young leaders. We each walked away from the experience as better leaders and as better people. I still remember the evenings we were interviewing freshman for the next years group - the group energy and dynamism was at a peak and we all knew that the past few months had been something memorable and meaningful.


Later my sophomore year I ran for Vice President of Student Council (the student government), My freshman year I ran for class vice president and miserably lost, so I never really thought I would get involved in student government, but it all kind of fell together. We won the election and I soon took on an enormous amount of responsibility and concern as one of the chief student leaders at school.


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As President of the student body, I was often asked for my opinions on the way things were going. How do the students feel? I got that a lot! In general, I have to say that Crisfield High is an amazing place to live and learn. Of course, that is hard for any student government leader to say - after all, we are in the business of rectifying problems and creating new ideas and a lot of times it may come across as a critique of everything happening around us. What I have seen here, especially as an outsider is a strong commitment to involving students in the decision-making processes. The opinions of students here are well respected and encouraged. We do our best to bring those opinions out in the efforts of working towards the common goal many schools seem to have improving Crisfield High for the benefit of all around, but especially for the students.


To conclude, this year in the end these experiences have made such a difference to so many students. Empowering students to take responsibilities for their actions and what happens in Life is so vitally important to a full education. I always think it is important to ask questions and live out the answers - that idea is something that has been the backbone to my experiences. And it all starts from that first day when you walk into school, with the right attitude and outlook - it is our decision to make the most of this experience and I am glad that I have.





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Monday, July 11, 2011

zoofoo-ring

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Albgfhjjfgjany Movement


-Formed on 17 Novejjjfghjmber 161


-Martin Luther King jr. joined in December


-Focused ghjjjfghjon bus and train stations, libraries, parks, hospitals, buses, jury representation, public and private employment and police brutality.


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-By December 161, over 500 protestors were jailed


Birmingham Confrontation


-Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth of Birmingham invited King


-Nicknamed % ingham because it was the site of eighteen unsolved ings


-Attack on the Freedom Riders on Mothers Day 161


-SCLC launched Project C (for Confrontation). On B Day (for Birmingham), April , 16


March on Washington DC


-In the spring and summer of 16


-Resulted in over twenty thousand arrests


-The roots of the 16 March on Washington go back to a 141 initiative by A. Philip Randolph


-The 141 march was canceled at the last moment


Sit Ins In Nashville, Tennessee


-Happened between 14 and 160


-Nashville was considered to be the Athens of the South


-The earlier protests did not gain full attention until 160


-In 158, local black leaders founded the Nashville Christian Leadership Conference (NCLC)


Mississippi / Medgar Evers


-Medgar Wiley Evers was born July , 15


-Evers applied for and was denied admission to the University of Mississippi


-But his attempt to integrate the state’s oldest public university attracted the attention of the NAACP’s national office


-That same year he was appointed Mississippi’s first field secretary for the NAACP.


Civil Rights Act 164


-On the second of july, 164


-To enforce the constghfjjjghjitutional right to vote


-Toghjfghj provide relief against discrimination in public accommodations


-To extend the Commission on Civil Rights


Malcolm X


-Born Malcolm Little on May 1, 15 in Omaha, Nebraska


-Malcolm was appointed a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of Islam


-Was largely credited with increasing membership in the Nation of Islam from 500 in 15 to 0,000 in 16


-Malcolm received criticism after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy for saying, [Kennedy] never foresaw that the chickens would come


Please note that this sample paper on zoofoo-ring is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on zoofoo-ring, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on zoofoo-ring will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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nooboo

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Albany Movement


-Formed on 17 November 161


-Martin Luther King jr. joined in December


-Focused on bus and train stations, libraries, parks, hospitals, buses, jury representation, public and private employment and police brutality.


Custom Essays on nooboo


-By December 161, over 500 protestors were jailed


Birmingham Confrontation


-Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth of Birmingham invited King


-Nicknamed % ingham because it was the site of eighteen unsolved ings


-Attack on the Freedom Riders on Mothers Day 161


-SCLC launched Project C (for Confrontation). On B Day (for Birmingham), April , 16


March on Washington DC


-In the spring and summer of 16


-Resulted in over twenty thousand arrests


-The roots of the 16 March on Washington go back to a 141 initiative by A. Philip Randolph


-The 141 march was canceled at the last moment


Sit Ins In Nashville, Tennessee


-Happened between 14 and 160


-Nashville was considered to be the Athens of the South


-The earlier protests did not gain full attention until 160


-In 158, local black leaders founded the Nashville Christian Leadership Conference (NCLC)


Mississippi / Medgar Evers


-Medgar Wiley Evers was born July , 15


-Evers applied for and was denied admission to the University of Mississippi


-But his attempt to integrate the state’s oldest public university attracted the attention of the NAACP’s national office


-That same year he was appointed Mississippi’s first field secretary for the NAACP.


Civil Rights Act 164


-On the second of july, 164


-To enforce the constitutional right to vote


-To provide relief against discrimination in public accommodations


-To extend the Commission on Civil Rights


Malcolm X


-Born Malcolm Little on May 1, 15 in Omaha, Nebraska


-Malcolm was appointed a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of Islam


-Was largely credited with increasing membership in the Nation of Islam from 500 in 15 to 0,000 in 16


-Malcolm received criticism after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy for saying, [Kennedy] never foresaw that the chickens would come


Please note that this sample paper on nooboo is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on nooboo, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on nooboo will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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